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standard biological model



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OCMIP devotees:

I have written up, as promised, the formulation of a standard biological model
for OCMIP.  I have attached the writeup to this email message as a postscript
file.  Alternatively, you can get this file, as well as an ADOBE PDF version,
by anonmyous ftp at ftp.essc.psu.edu in the directory /pub/meteo/najjar.

Please provide comments on the model description within two weeks.  I will
incorporate your suggestions as best as I can so that we can reach some final
version shortly thereafter.

Ray

Raymond G. Najjar
Department of Meteorology            Phone: 814-863-1586
522 Walker Building                  Fax: 814-865-3663
The Pennsylvania State University    Email: najjar@essc.psu.edu 
University Park, PA 16802-5013       home page: http://www.essc.psu.edu/~najjar
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	getBlackScreen
} bind def
/FMSetScreen 
	fMLevel1 { /setscreen load 
	}{ {
		8 dict begin
		/HalftoneType 1 def
		/SpotFunction exch def
		/Angle exch def
		/Frequency exch def
		/AccurateScreens FMUseAcccurateScreens def
		currentdict end sethalftone
	} bind } ifelse
def
/setDefaultScreen {
	FMPColor {
		orgrxfer cvx orggxfer cvx orgbxfer cvx orgxfer cvx setcolortransfer
	}
	{
		orgxfer cvx settransfer
	} ifelse
	orgfreq organgle orgproc cvx setscreen
} bind def
/setCurrentScreen {
	FrameSepIs FMnone eq {
		FMUseDefaultNoSeparationScreen {
			setDefaultScreen
		} {
			getCompositeScreen FMSetScreen
		} ifelse
	} {
		FrameSepIs FMcustom eq {
			FMUseDefaultSpotSeparationScreen {
				setDefaultScreen
			} {
				getSpotScreen FMSetScreen
			} ifelse
		} {
			FMUseDefaultProcessSeparationScreen {
				setDefaultScreen
			} {
				FrameSepIs FMcyan eq {
					getCyanScreen FMSetScreen
				} {
					FrameSepIs FMmagenta eq {
						getMagentaScreen FMSetScreen
					} {
						FrameSepIs FMyellow eq {
							getYellowScreen FMSetScreen
						} {
							getBlackScreen FMSetScreen
						} ifelse
					} ifelse
				} ifelse
			} ifelse
		} ifelse
	} ifelse 
} bind def
end
	
/FMDOCUMENT { 
	array /FMfonts exch def 
	/#copies exch def
	FrameDict begin
	0 ne /manualfeed exch def
	/paperheight exch def
	/paperwidth exch def
	0 ne /fMNegative exch def 
	0 ne /edown exch def 
	/yscale exch def
	/xscale exch def
	fMLevel1 {
		manualfeed {setmanualfeed} if
		/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def 
		/FMoptop count def 
		setpapername 
		manualfeed {true} {papersize} ifelse 
		{manualpapersize} {false} ifelse 
		{desperatepapersize} {false} ifelse 
		{papersizefailure} if
		count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for
		countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for 
		}
		{2 dict
		 dup /PageSize [paperwidth paperheight] put
		 manualfeed {dup /ManualFeed manualfeed put} if
		 {setpagedevice} stopped {papersizefailure} if
		}
	ifelse 
	
	FMPColor {
		currentcolorscreen
			cvlit /orgproc exch def
				  /organgle exch def 
				  /orgfreq exch def
			cvlit /orgbproc exch def
				  /orgbangle exch def 
				  /orgbfreq exch def
			cvlit /orggproc exch def
				  /orggangle exch def 
				  /orggfreq exch def
			cvlit /orgrproc exch def
				  /orgrangle exch def 
				  /orgrfreq exch def
			currentcolortransfer 
			fMNegative {
				1 1 4 { 
					pop { 1 exch sub } fmConcatProcs 4 1 roll
				} for
				4 copy
				setcolortransfer
			} if
			cvlit /orgxfer exch def
			cvlit /orgbxfer exch def
			cvlit /orggxfer exch def
			cvlit /orgrxfer exch def
	} {
		currentscreen 
			cvlit /orgproc exch def
				  /organgle exch def 
				  /orgfreq exch def
				  
		currenttransfer 
		fMNegative {
			{ 1 exch sub } fmConcatProcs
			dup settransfer
		} if 
		cvlit /orgxfer exch def
	} ifelse
	end 
} def 
/FMBEGINPAGE { 
	FrameDict begin 
	/pagesave save def
	3.86 setmiterlimit
	/landscape exch 0 ne def
	landscape { 
		90 rotate 0 exch dup /pwid exch def neg translate pop 
	}{
		pop /pwid exch def
	} ifelse
	edown { [-1 0 0 1 pwid 0] concat } if
	0 0 moveto paperwidth 0 lineto paperwidth paperheight lineto 
	0 paperheight lineto 0 0 lineto 1 setgray fill
	xscale yscale scale
	/orgmatrix matrix def
	gsave 
} def 
/FMENDPAGE {
	grestore 
	pagesave restore
	end 
	showpage
	} def 
/FMFONTDEFINE { 
	FrameDict begin
	findfont 
	ReEncode 
	1 index exch 
	definefont 
	FMfonts 3 1 roll 
	put
	end 
	} def 
/FMFILLS {
	FrameDict begin dup
	array /fillvals exch def
	dict /patCache exch def
	end 
	} def 
/FMFILL {
	FrameDict begin
	 fillvals 3 1 roll put
	end 
	} def 
/FMNORMALIZEGRAPHICS { 
	newpath
	1 setlinewidth
	0 setlinecap
	0 0 0 sethsbcolor
	0 setgray 
	} bind def
/FMBEGINEPSF { 
	end 
	/FMEPSF save def 
	/showpage {} def 
% See Adobe's "PostScript Language Reference Manual, 2nd Edition", page 714.
% "...the following operators MUST NOT be used in an EPS file:" (emphasis ours)
	/banddevice {(banddevice) FMBADEPSF} def
	/clear {(clear) FMBADEPSF} def
	/cleardictstack {(cleardictstack) FMBADEPSF} def 
	/copypage {(copypage) FMBADEPSF} def
	/erasepage {(erasepage) FMBADEPSF} def
	/exitserver {(exitserver) FMBADEPSF} def
	/framedevice {(framedevice) FMBADEPSF} def
	/grestoreall {(grestoreall) FMBADEPSF} def
	/initclip {(initclip) FMBADEPSF} def
	/initgraphics {(initgraphics) FMBADEPSF} def
	/quit {(quit) FMBADEPSF} def
	/renderbands {(renderbands) FMBADEPSF} def
	/setglobal {(setglobal) FMBADEPSF} def
	/setpagedevice {(setpagedevice) FMBADEPSF} def
	/setshared {(setshared) FMBADEPSF} def
	/startjob {(startjob) FMBADEPSF} def
	/lettertray {(lettertray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/letter {(letter) FMBADEPSF} def
	/lettersmall {(lettersmall) FMBADEPSF} def
	/11x17tray {(11x17tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/11x17 {(11x17) FMBADEPSF} def
	/ledgertray {(ledgertray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/ledger {(ledger) FMBADEPSF} def
	/legaltray {(legaltray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/legal {(legal) FMBADEPSF} def
	/statementtray {(statementtray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/statement {(statement) FMBADEPSF} def
	/executivetray {(executivetray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/executive {(executive) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a3tray {(a3tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a3 {(a3) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a4tray {(a4tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a4 {(a4) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a4small {(a4small) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b4tray {(b4tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b4 {(b4) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b5tray {(b5tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b5 {(b5) FMBADEPSF} def
	FMNORMALIZEGRAPHICS 
	[/fy /fx /fh /fw /ury /urx /lly /llx] {exch def} forall 
	fx fw 2 div add fy fh 2 div add  translate
	rotate
	fw 2 div neg fh 2 div neg translate
	fw urx llx sub div fh ury lly sub div scale 
	llx neg lly neg translate 
	/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def 
	/FMoptop count def 
	} bind def
/FMENDEPSF {
	count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for 
	countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for 
	FMEPSF restore
	FrameDict begin 
	} bind def
FrameDict begin 
/setmanualfeed {
%%BeginFeature *ManualFeed True
	 statusdict /manualfeed true put
%%EndFeature
	} bind def
/max {2 copy lt {exch} if pop} bind def
/min {2 copy gt {exch} if pop} bind def
/inch {72 mul} def
/pagedimen { 
	paperheight sub abs 16 lt exch 
	paperwidth sub abs 16 lt and
	{/papername exch def} {pop} ifelse
	} bind def
/setpapername { 
	/papersizedict 14 dict def 
	papersizedict begin
	/papername /unknown def 
		/Letter 8.5 inch 11.0 inch pagedimen
		/LetterSmall 7.68 inch 10.16 inch pagedimen
		/Tabloid 11.0 inch 17.0 inch pagedimen
		/Ledger 17.0 inch 11.0 inch pagedimen
		/Legal 8.5 inch 14.0 inch pagedimen
		/Statement 5.5 inch 8.5 inch pagedimen
		/Executive 7.5 inch 10.0 inch pagedimen
		/A3 11.69 inch 16.5 inch pagedimen
		/A4 8.26 inch 11.69 inch pagedimen
		/A4Small 7.47 inch 10.85 inch pagedimen
		/B4 10.125 inch 14.33 inch pagedimen
		/B5 7.16 inch 10.125 inch pagedimen
	end
	} bind def
/papersize {
	papersizedict begin
		/Letter {lettertray letter} def
		/LetterSmall {lettertray lettersmall} def
		/Tabloid {11x17tray 11x17} def
		/Ledger {ledgertray ledger} def
		/Legal {legaltray legal} def
		/Statement {statementtray statement} def
		/Executive {executivetray executive} def
		/A3 {a3tray a3} def
		/A4 {a4tray a4} def
		/A4Small {a4tray a4small} def
		/B4 {b4tray b4} def
		/B5 {b5tray b5} def
		/unknown {unknown} def
	papersizedict dup papername known {papername} {/unknown} ifelse get
	end
	statusdict begin stopped end 
	} bind def
/manualpapersize {
	papersizedict begin
		/Letter {letter} def
		/LetterSmall {lettersmall} def
		/Tabloid {11x17} def
		/Ledger {ledger} def
		/Legal {legal} def
		/Statement {statement} def
		/Executive {executive} def
		/A3 {a3} def
		/A4 {a4} def
		/A4Small {a4small} def
		/B4 {b4} def
		/B5 {b5} def
		/unknown {unknown} def
	papersizedict dup papername known {papername} {/unknown} ifelse get
	end
	stopped 
	} bind def
/desperatepapersize {
	statusdict /setpageparams known
		{
		paperwidth paperheight 0 1 
		statusdict begin
		{setpageparams} stopped 
		end
		} {true} ifelse 
	} bind def
/papersizefailure {
	FMAllowPaperSizeMismatch not
		{
(The requested paper size is not available in any currently-installed tray)
(Edit the PS file to "FMAllowPaperSizeMismatch true" to use default tray)
		 FMFAILURE } if
	} def
/DiacriticEncoding [
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /space /exclam /quotedbl
/numbersign /dollar /percent /ampersand /quotesingle /parenleft
/parenright /asterisk /plus /comma /hyphen /period /slash /zero /one
/two /three /four /five /six /seven /eight /nine /colon /semicolon
/less /equal /greater /question /at /A /B /C /D /E /F /G /H /I /J /K
/L /M /N /O /P /Q /R /S /T /U /V /W /X /Y /Z /bracketleft /backslash
/bracketright /asciicircum /underscore /grave /a /b /c /d /e /f /g /h
/i /j /k /l /m /n /o /p /q /r /s /t /u /v /w /x /y /z /braceleft /bar
/braceright /asciitilde /.notdef /Adieresis /Aring /Ccedilla /Eacute
/Ntilde /Odieresis /Udieresis /aacute /agrave /acircumflex /adieresis
/atilde /aring /ccedilla /eacute /egrave /ecircumflex /edieresis
/iacute /igrave /icircumflex /idieresis /ntilde /oacute /ograve
/ocircumflex /odieresis /otilde /uacute /ugrave /ucircumflex
/udieresis /dagger /.notdef /cent /sterling /section /bullet
/paragraph /germandbls /registered /copyright /trademark /acute
/dieresis /.notdef /AE /Oslash /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/yen /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/ordfeminine /ordmasculine /.notdef /ae /oslash /questiondown
/exclamdown /logicalnot /.notdef /florin /.notdef /.notdef
/guillemotleft /guillemotright /ellipsis /.notdef /Agrave /Atilde
/Otilde /OE /oe /endash /emdash /quotedblleft /quotedblright
/quoteleft /quoteright /.notdef /.notdef /ydieresis /Ydieresis
/fraction /currency /guilsinglleft /guilsinglright /fi /fl /daggerdbl
/periodcentered /quotesinglbase /quotedblbase /perthousand
/Acircumflex /Ecircumflex /Aacute /Edieresis /Egrave /Iacute
/Icircumflex /Idieresis /Igrave /Oacute /Ocircumflex /.notdef /Ograve
/Uacute /Ucircumflex /Ugrave /dotlessi /circumflex /tilde /macron
/breve /dotaccent /ring /cedilla /hungarumlaut /ogonek /caron
] def
/ReEncode { 
	dup 
	length 
	dict begin 
	{
	1 index /FID ne 
		{def} 
		{pop pop} ifelse 
	} forall 
	0 eq {/Encoding DiacriticEncoding def} if 
	currentdict 
	end 
	} bind def
FMPColor 
	
	{
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLOR { 
		BITMAPCOLOR} def
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLORc { 
		BITMAPCOLORc} def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLOR { 
		BITMAPTRUECOLOR } def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLORc { 
		BITMAPTRUECOLORc } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYK { 
		BITMAPCMYK } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYKc { 
		BITMAPCMYKc } def
	}
	
	{
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLOR { 
		BITMAPGRAY} def
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLORc { 
		BITMAPGRAYc} def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLOR { 
		BITMAPTRUEGRAY } def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLORc { 
		BITMAPTRUEGRAYc } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYK { 
		BITMAPCMYKGRAY } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYKc { 
		BITMAPCMYKGRAYc } def
	}
ifelse
/K { 
	FMPrintAllColorsAsBlack {
		dup 1 eq 2 index 1 eq and 3 index 1 eq and not
			{7 {pop} repeat 0 0 0 1 0 0 0} if
	} if 
	FrameCurColors astore 
	pop combineColor
} bind def
/graymode true def
fMLevel1 {
	/fmGetFlip {
		fMatrix2 exch get mul 0 lt { -1 } { 1 } ifelse
	} FmBD
} if
/setPatternMode {
	fMLevel1 {
		2 index patScreenDict exch known {
			pop pop
			patScreenDict exch get aload pop 
			freq 								
			mul									
			5 2 roll							
			fMatrix2 currentmatrix 1 get 0 ne {
				3 -1 roll 90 add 3 1 roll 		
				sflipx 1 fmGetFlip sflipy 2 fmGetFlip neg mul
			} {  								
				sflipx 0 fmGetFlip sflipy 3 fmGetFlip mul 
			} ifelse
			0 lt {exch pop} {pop} ifelse 		
			fMNegative { 
				{neg} fmConcatProcs 			
			} if
			bind
			
			
			
			systemdict /setscreen get exec		
			/FrameCurGray exch def
		} {
			/bwidth  exch def
			/bpside  exch def
			/bstring exch def
			/onbits 0 def  /offbits 0 def
			freq sangle landscape {90 add} if 
				{/ypoint exch def
				 /xpoint exch def
				 /xindex xpoint 1 add 2 div bpside mul cvi def
				 /yindex ypoint 1 add 2 div bpside mul cvi def
				 bstring yindex bwidth mul xindex 8 idiv add get
				 1 7 xindex 8 mod sub bitshift and 0 ne fMNegative {not} if
				 {/onbits  onbits  1 add def 1}
				 {/offbits offbits 1 add def 0}
				 ifelse
				}
				setscreen
			offbits offbits onbits add div fMNegative {1.0 exch sub} if
			/FrameCurGray exch def
		} ifelse
	} { 
		pop pop
		dup patCache exch known {
			patCache exch get
		} { 
			dup
			patDict /bstring 3 -1 roll put
			patDict 
			9 PatFreq screenIndex get div dup matrix scale
			makepattern
			dup 
			patCache 4 -1 roll 3 -1 roll put
		} ifelse
		/FrameCurGray 0 def
		/FrameCurPat exch def
	} ifelse
	/graymode false def
	combineColor
} bind def
/setGrayScaleMode {
	graymode not {
		/graymode true def
		fMLevel1 {
			setCurrentScreen
		} if
	} if
	/FrameCurGray exch def
	combineColor
} bind def
/normalize {
	transform round exch round exch itransform
	} bind def
/dnormalize {
	dtransform round exch round exch idtransform
	} bind def
/lnormalize { 
	0 dtransform exch cvi 2 idiv 2 mul 1 add exch idtransform pop
	} bind def
/H { 
	lnormalize setlinewidth
	} bind def
/Z {
	setlinecap
	} bind def
	
/PFill {
	graymode fMLevel1 or not {
		gsave 1 setgray eofill grestore
	} if
} bind def
/PStroke {
	graymode fMLevel1 or not {
		gsave 1 setgray stroke grestore
	} if
	stroke
} bind def
/X { 
	fillvals exch get
	dup type /stringtype eq
	{8 1 setPatternMode} 
	{setGrayScaleMode}
	ifelse
	} bind def
/V { 
	PFill gsave eofill grestore
	} bind def
/Vclip {
	clip
	} bind def
/Vstrk {
	currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
	} bind def
/N { 
	PStroke
	} bind def
/Nclip {
	strokepath clip newpath
	} bind def
/Nstrk {
	currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
	} bind def
/M {newpath moveto} bind def
/E {lineto} bind def
/D {curveto} bind def
/O {closepath} bind def
/L { 
 	/n exch def
	newpath
	normalize
	moveto 
	2 1 n {pop normalize lineto} for
	} bind def
/Y { 
	L 
	closepath
	} bind def
/R { 
	/y2 exch def
	/x2 exch def
	/y1 exch def
	/x1 exch def
	x1 y1
	x2 y1
	x2 y2
	x1 y2
	4 Y 
	} bind def
/rarc 
	{rad 
	 arcto
	} bind def
/RR { 
	/rad exch def
	normalize
	/y2 exch def
	/x2 exch def
	normalize
	/y1 exch def
	/x1 exch def
	mark
	newpath
	{
	x1 y1 rad add moveto
	x1 y2 x2 y2 rarc
	x2 y2 x2 y1 rarc
	x2 y1 x1 y1 rarc
	x1 y1 x1 y2 rarc
	closepath
	} stopped {x1 y1 x2 y2 R} if 
	cleartomark
	} bind def
/RRR { 
	/rad exch def
	normalize /y4 exch def /x4 exch def
	normalize /y3 exch def /x3 exch def
	normalize /y2 exch def /x2 exch def
	normalize /y1 exch def /x1 exch def
	newpath
	normalize moveto 
	mark
	{
	x2 y2 x3 y3 rarc
	x3 y3 x4 y4 rarc
	x4 y4 x1 y1 rarc
	x1 y1 x2 y2 rarc
	closepath
	} stopped
	 {x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4 newpath moveto lineto lineto lineto closepath} if
	cleartomark
	} bind def
/C { 
	grestore
	gsave
	R 
	clip
	setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/CP { 
	grestore
	gsave
	Y 
	clip
	setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/F { 
	FMfonts exch get
	FMpointsize scalefont
	setfont
	} bind def
/Q { 
	/FMpointsize exch def
	F 
	} bind def
/T { 
	moveto show
	} bind def
/RF { 
	rotate
	0 ne {-1 1 scale} if
	} bind def
/TF { 
	gsave
	moveto 
	RF
	show
	grestore
	} bind def
/P { 
	moveto
	0 32 3 2 roll widthshow
	} bind def
/PF { 
	gsave
	moveto 
	RF
	0 32 3 2 roll widthshow
	grestore
	} bind def
/S { 
	moveto
	0 exch ashow
	} bind def
/SF { 
	gsave
	moveto
	RF
	0 exch ashow
	grestore
	} bind def
/B { 
	moveto
	0 32 4 2 roll 0 exch awidthshow
	} bind def
/BF { 
	gsave
	moveto
	RF
	0 32 4 2 roll 0 exch awidthshow
	grestore
	} bind def
/G { 
	gsave
	newpath
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath 
	PFill fill
	grestore
	} bind def
/Gstrk {
	savematrix
    newpath
    2 index 2 div add exch 3 index 2 div sub exch 
    normalize 2 index 2 div sub exch 3 index 2 div add exch 
    translate
    scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    restorematrix
    currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
    } bind def
/Gclip { 
	newpath
	savematrix
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath 
	clip newpath
	restorematrix
	} bind def
/GG { 
	gsave
	newpath
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	rotate 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath
	PFill
	fill
	grestore
	} bind def
/GGclip { 
	savematrix
	newpath
    normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
    rotate 
    dnormalize scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    closepath
	clip newpath
	restorematrix
	} bind def
/GGstrk { 
	savematrix
    newpath
    normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
    rotate 
    dnormalize scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    closepath 
	restorematrix
    currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
	} bind def
/A { 
	gsave
	savematrix
	newpath
	2 index 2 div add exch 3 index 2 div sub exch 
	normalize 2 index 2 div sub exch 3 index 2 div add exch 
	translate 
	scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	restorematrix
	PStroke
	grestore
	} bind def
/Aclip {
	newpath
	savematrix
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath 
	strokepath clip newpath
	restorematrix
} bind def
/Astrk {
	Gstrk
} bind def
/AA { 
	gsave
	savematrix
	newpath
	
	3 index 2 div add exch 4 index 2 div sub exch 
	
	normalize 3 index 2 div sub exch 4 index 2 div add exch
	translate 
	rotate 
	scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	restorematrix
	PStroke
	grestore
	} bind def
/AAclip {
	savematrix
	newpath
    normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
    rotate 
    dnormalize scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    closepath
	strokepath clip newpath
	restorematrix
} bind def
/AAstrk {
	GGstrk
} bind def
/BEGINPRINTCODE { 
	/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def 
	/FMoptop count 7 sub def 
	/FMsaveobject save def
	userdict begin 
	/showpage {} def 
	FMNORMALIZEGRAPHICS 
	3 index neg 3 index neg translate
	} bind def
/ENDPRINTCODE {
	count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for 
	countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for 
	FMsaveobject restore 
	} bind def
/gn { 
	0 
	{	46 mul 
		cf read pop 
		32 sub 
		dup 46 lt {exit} if 
		46 sub add 
		} loop
	add 
	} bind def
/cfs { 
	/str sl string def 
	0 1 sl 1 sub {str exch val put} for 
	str def 
	} bind def
/ic [ 
	0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0223
	0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0223
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%%EndProlog
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0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
J
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(1) 303.5 36 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 12 Q
(Pr) 178.09 712 T
(oposed standard biological model f) 190.54 712 T
(or OCMIP-2) 368.26 712 T
(Raymond Najjar) 262.51 698 T
(May 11, 1998) 271.84 684 T
0 F
- -0.05 (One of the more challenging tasks f) 108 656 P
- -0.05 (acing marine carbon c) 278.9 656 P
- -0.05 (ycle modelers is the formulation) 384.87 656 P
0.62 (of biological processes. Currently there is no uni) 72 642 P
0.62 (v) 309.33 642 P
0.62 (ersally accepted predicti) 315.15 642 P
0.62 (v) 432.71 642 P
0.62 (e model of the ef) 438.53 642 P
0.62 (fect) 522.01 642 P
- -0.16 (of biological processes on the lar) 72 628 P
- -0.16 (ge scale distrib) 229.31 628 P
- -0.16 (ution of carbon in the ocean. As a result, there is a) 300.75 628 P
0 (great v) 72 614 P
0 (ariety of approaches for simulating the sources and sinks of carbon and related elements in) 104.69 614 P
0.5 (the ocean, ranging from highly parameterized models without an) 72 600 P
0.5 (y e) 386.72 600 P
0.5 (xplicit treatment of the biota) 401.36 600 P
0.79 (to e) 72 586 P
0.79 (xtremely comple) 90.28 586 P
0.79 (x ecosystem models. Comparing results from dif) 171.87 586 P
0.79 (ferent biological models is) 409.97 586 P
- -0.19 (made dif) 72 572 P
- -0.19 (\336cult by the f) 113.83 572 P
- -0.19 (act that the ocean circulation models are dif) 177.46 572 P
- -0.19 (ferent as well. T) 385.42 572 P
- -0.19 (o f) 461.86 572 P
- -0.19 (acilitate com-) 474.54 572 P
0.2 (parison, it is desirable to ha) 72 558 P
0.2 (v) 204.74 558 P
0.2 (e a common biological model, e) 210.56 558 P
0.2 (v) 365.24 558 P
0.2 (en though such a model is lik) 371.06 558 P
0.2 (ely to) 512.8 558 P
(ha) 72 544 T
(v) 83.09 544 T
(e signi\336cant de\336ciencies.) 88.91 544 T
0.21 (The purpose of this document is to describe a common biological model to be used in the) 108 530 P
0.09 (second phase of the Ocean Carbon-c) 72 516 P
0.09 (ycle Model Intercomparison Project \050OCMIP-2\051. A common) 247.86 516 P
- -0.07 (biological model should satisfy tw) 72 502 P
- -0.07 (o criteria: it should be able to reproduce the \336rst-order distrib) 236.95 502 P
- -0.07 (u-) 530 502 P
- -0.27 (tion of carbon and related elements in the ocean and should be easy to implement. The simple bio-) 72 488 P
3.46 (logical model proposed here has \336v) 72 474 P
3.46 (e prognostic v) 260.1 474 P
3.46 (ariables carried by the circulation \336eld:) 334.71 474 P
- -0.24 (inor) 72 460 P
- -0.24 (g) 91.12 460 P
- -0.24 (anic phosphate \050PO) 97.06 460 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.19 (4) 190.55 457 P
- -0.19 (3-) 195.35 464.8 P
0 12 Q
- -0.24 (, or PO) 203.35 460 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.19 (4) 237.19 457 P
0 12 Q
- -0.24 ( for short\051, dissolv) 241.99 460 P
- -0.24 (ed or) 329.07 460 P
- -0.24 (g) 352.94 460 P
- -0.24 (anic phosphorus \050DOP\051, oxygen \050O) 358.88 460 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.19 (2) 528.2 457 P
0 12 Q
- -0.24 (\051,) 533 460 P
1.41 (dissolv) 72 446 P
1.41 (ed inor) 105.83 446 P
1.41 (g) 140.69 446 P
1.41 (anic carbon \050DIC\051 and alkalinity \050Alk\051. The time e) 146.63 446 P
1.41 (v) 399.93 446 P
1.41 (olution equation for one of) 405.69 446 P
(these v) 72 432 T
(ariables is gi) 105.36 432 T
(v) 165.72 432 T
(en by) 171.54 432 T
(,) 348.5 404 T
(\0501\051) 526.01 404 T
- -0.14 (where) 72 376 P
2 F
- -0.14 (C) 104.18 376 P
0 F
- -0.14 ( is the concentration of the tracer) 112.18 376 P
- -0.14 (,) 268.81 376 P
2 F
- -0.14 (L) 274.67 376 P
0 F
- -0.14 ( is the linear transport operator de\336ning adv) 281.35 376 P
- -0.14 (ection and) 490.48 376 P
- -0 (dif) 72 362 P
- -0 (fusion and) 85.03 362 P
2 F
- -0 (J) 138.35 362 P
2 9.6 Q
- -0 (C) 143.68 359 P
0 12 Q
- -0 ( is the biogeochemical source-sink distrib) 150.08 362 P
- -0 (ution for) 349.47 362 P
2 F
- -0 (C) 394.13 362 P
0 F
- -0 (. T) 402.13 362 P
- -0 (ransport will be generated) 415.04 362 P
0.64 (by the indi) 72 348 P
0.64 (vidual participants in OCMIP-2 and will generally be dif) 124.32 348 P
0.64 (ferent among groups. Here I) 401.8 348 P
0.87 (will propose formulations for) 72 334 P
2 F
0.87 (J) 219.45 334 P
0 9.6 Q
0.69 (PO4) 224.78 331 P
0 12 Q
0.87 (,) 241.85 334 P
2 F
0.87 (J) 248.71 334 P
0 9.6 Q
0.69 (DOP) 254.04 331 P
0 12 Q
0.87 (,) 271.91 334 P
2 F
0.87 (J) 278.77 334 P
0 9.6 Q
0.69 (O2) 284.1 331 P
0 12 Q
0.87 (,) 295.83 334 P
2 F
0.87 (J) 302.7 334 P
0 9.6 Q
0.69 (DIC) 308.02 331 P
0 12 Q
0.87 ( and) 324.55 334 P
2 F
0.87 (J) 349.61 334 P
0 9.6 Q
0.69 (Alk) 354.36 331 P
0 12 Q
0.87 (, as well as the surf) 368.76 334 P
0.87 (ace and bottom) 464.95 334 P
(boundary conditions for the \336v) 72 320 T
(e tracers.) 220.48 320 T
1 F
(1. Phosphorus cycling) 72 292 T
0 F
2.18 (The model describing the c) 108 264 P
2.18 (ycling of phosphorus is similar to the \322nutrient restoring\323) 247.2 264 P
- -0.28 (approach adopted by Najjar) 72 250 P
2 F
- -0.28 (et al.) 206.85 250 P
0 F
- -0.28 ( \0501992\051 and Anderson and Sarmiento \0501995\051. The nutrient restor-) 230.57 250 P
- -0.04 (ing approach has the adv) 72 236 P
- -0.04 (antage of insuring the correct spatial and temporal distrib) 190.84 236 P
- -0.04 (ution of surf) 464.89 236 P
- -0.04 (ace) 524.02 236 P
0.14 (nutrients, which is necessary for modeling the correct spatial and temporal distrib) 72 222 P
0.14 (ution of surf) 464.54 222 P
0.14 (ace) 524.02 222 P
0.5 (ocean) 72 208 P
2 F
0.5 (p) 103.49 208 P
0 F
0.5 (CO) 109.49 208 P
0 9.6 Q
0.4 (2) 126.16 205 P
0 12 Q
0.5 ( and air) 130.96 208 P
0.5 (-sea CO) 167.71 208 P
0 9.6 Q
0.4 (2) 207.2 205 P
0 12 Q
0.5 ( transfer\321critical criteria that must be met for OCMIP) 212 208 P
0.5 (. Clearly this) 477.32 208 P
0.94 (diagnostic approach is a temporary solution. If there were a prognostic model that could repro-) 72 194 P
- -0.04 (duce the lar) 72 180 P
- -0.04 (ge-scale spatial and seasonal nutrient patterns in the surf) 127.69 180 P
- -0.04 (ace ocean, the nutrient restor-) 397.87 180 P
1.43 (ing approach w) 72 166 P
1.43 (ould be abandoned. Such a model w) 148.72 166 P
1.43 (ould lik) 330.81 166 P
1.43 (ely ha) 369.13 166 P
1.43 (v) 399.31 166 P
1.43 (e, at the minimum, e) 405.13 166 P
1.43 (xplicit) 509.33 166 P
0.98 (treatment of ph) 72 152 P
0.98 (ytoplankton and zooplankton, as well as incorporation of iron limitation. T) 147.22 152 P
0.98 (o my) 514.68 152 P
(kno) 72 138 T
(wledge, no such model e) 89.7 138 T
(xists on a global scale.) 208.5 138 T
- -0.05 (Phosphate is chosen instead of nitrate as the basic currenc) 108 124 P
- -0.05 (y of the model so as to a) 384.93 124 P
- -0.05 (v) 501.3 124 P
- -0.05 (oid the) 507.05 124 P
2.06 (comple) 72 110 P
2.06 (xities of nitrogen \336xation and denitri\336cation, although, as discussed belo) 107.15 110 P
2.06 (w) 474.35 110 P
2.06 (, these pro-) 482.23 110 P
0.21 (cesses are not completely ignored. Phosphate also has the adv) 72 96 P
0.21 (antage of ha) 370.24 96 P
0.21 (ving a greater database) 429.07 96 P
(of observ) 72 82 T
(ations for forcing and e) 116.69 82 T
(v) 228.36 82 T
(aluating the model.) 234.06 82 T
260.5 390.96 348.5 420.66 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(\266) 261.74 410.66 T
2 F
(C) 268.37 410.66 T
3 F
(\266) 264.1 395.96 T
2 F
(t) 270.73 395.96 T
0 F
(-) 261.74 404 T
(-) 263.73 404 T
(-) 265.73 404 T
(-) 267.73 404 T
(-) 269.73 404 T
(-) 271.73 404 T
(-) 272.64 404 T
2 F
(L) 295.74 404 T
(C) 308 404 T
3 F
(\050) 303.15 404 T
(\051) 317.12 404 T
2 F
(J) 333.95 404 T
2 9 Q
(C) 340.3 400.4 T
0 12 Q
(+) 324.11 404 T
(=) 282.88 404 T
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "1" 1
%%Page: "2" 2
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
 7 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(2) 303.5 36 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
0.18 (The model proposed here has tw) 108 712 P
0.18 (o important dif) 265.07 712 P
0.18 (ferences with respect to pre) 337.13 712 P
0.18 (vious nutrient-) 469.49 712 P
1.43 (restoring models. First, only the so-called semi-labile dissolv) 72 698 P
1.43 (ed or) 374.82 698 P
1.43 (g) 400.36 698 P
1.43 (anic matter \050DOM\051 pool is) 406.3 698 P
- -0.3 (considered. This pool is thought to ha) 72 684 P
- -0.3 (v) 250.97 684 P
- -0.3 (e a lifetime of months. The other tw) 256.79 684 P
- -0.3 (o pools commonly con-) 427.23 684 P
- -0.2 (sidered are the labile pool, with a lifetime of hours to days, and the refractory pool, with a lifetime) 72 670 P
0.99 (of hundreds to thousands of years. It is ar) 72 656 P
0.99 (gued that these tw) 278.01 656 P
0.99 (o pools do not ha) 367.85 656 P
0.99 (v) 454.23 656 P
0.99 (e an appreciable) 460.05 656 P
- -0.13 (impact on lar) 72 642 P
- -0.13 (ge scale nutrient and carbon distrib) 134.84 642 P
- -0.13 (utions because there is v) 302.23 642 P
- -0.13 (ery little net or) 418.83 642 P
- -0.13 (g) 489.21 642 P
- -0.13 (anic mat-) 495.15 642 P
1.12 (ter e) 72 628 P
1.12 (xport from the euphotic zone in these dissolv) 93.93 628 P
1.12 (ed forms. The second important dif) 317.94 628 P
1.12 (ference is) 492.57 628 P
0.29 (that the model proposed here is seasonal. Thus, we will be restoring to) 72 614 P
0.29 (w) 413.12 614 P
0.29 (ards a monthly observ) 421.67 614 P
0.29 (ed) 528.67 614 P
(climatology of phosphate in the surf) 72 600 T
(ace ocean \050Louanchi and Najjar) 245.53 600 T
(, in preparation\051.) 397.66 600 T
- -0.19 (T) 108 586 P
- -0.19 (o compute) 114.37 586 P
2 F
- -0.19 (J) 167.32 586 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.15 (PO4) 172.65 583 P
0 12 Q
- -0.19 (, tw) 189.72 586 P
- -0.19 (o re) 207.41 586 P
- -0.19 (gions are de\336ned, separated by the compensation depth,) 225.36 586 P
2 F
- -0.19 (D) 495.14 586 P
2 9.6 Q
- -0.15 (c) 503.8 583 P
0 12 Q
- -0.19 (. I pre-) 508.06 586 P
1.16 (fer not to use the term \322euphotic zone depth\323 because it means something quite dif) 72 572 P
1.16 (ferent from) 484.53 572 P
1.21 (compensation depth. I will refer to the re) 72 558 P
1.21 (gion abo) 276.25 558 P
1.21 (v) 318.95 558 P
1.21 (e the compensation depth as the production) 324.77 558 P
1.06 (zone and the re) 72 544 P
1.06 (gion belo) 147.98 544 P
1.06 (w the compensation depth as the consumption zone. In the production) 193.74 544 P
- -0.2 (zone, [PO) 72 530 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.16 (4) 119.79 527 P
0 12 Q
- -0.2 (] is nudged to) 124.59 530 P
- -0.2 (w) 189.35 530 P
- -0.2 (ards observ) 197.89 530 P
- -0.2 (ations, [PO) 252.38 530 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.16 (4) 306.17 527 P
0 12 Q
- -0.2 (]) 310.97 530 P
2 F
- -0.2 (*) 314.97 530 P
0 F
- -0.2 (, on a timescale) 320.97 530 P
3 F
- -0.2 (t) 397.82 530 P
0 F
- -0.2 (, b) 403.09 530 P
- -0.2 (ut only if [PO) 414.64 530 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.16 (4) 480.38 527 P
0 12 Q
- -0.2 (]) 485.18 530 P
2 F
- -0.2 ( >) 489.17 530 P
0 F
- -0.2 ([PO) 502.87 530 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.16 (4) 522.2 527 P
0 12 Q
- -0.2 (]) 527 530 P
2 F
- -0.2 (*) 531 530 P
0 F
- -0.2 (.) 537 530 P
(Otherwise, there is no nudging. Thus we ha) 72 516 T
(v) 280.73 516 T
(e:) 286.55 516 T
(,) 326.92 488 T
(\0502\051) 526.01 474 T
(,) 231.24 460 T
(,) 423.93 460 T
(where) 72 432 T
2 F
(D) 104.32 432 T
0 F
( is the depth.) 112.98 432 T
1.11 (It is assumed that a \336x) 108 418 P
1.11 (ed fraction,) 221.04 418 P
3 F
1.11 (s) 280.91 418 P
0 F
1.11 (, of the phosphate uptak) 288.15 418 P
1.11 (e in the production zone is) 407.46 418 P
1.2 (con) 72 404 P
1.2 (v) 88.85 404 P
1.2 (erted to DOP) 94.67 404 P
1.2 (, which is allo) 159.06 404 P
1.2 (wed to be adv) 229.68 404 P
1.2 (ected and dif) 300.08 404 P
1.2 (fused by the circulation \336eld and is) 364.16 404 P
(consumed e) 72 390 T
(v) 128.69 390 T
(erywhere follo) 134.51 390 T
(wing \336rst-order kinetics. Thus we ha) 204.52 390 T
(v) 380.92 390 T
(e) 386.74 390 T
(,) 301.12 362 T
(\0503a\051) 520.68 362 T
(,) 312.21 334 T
2 F
(.) 390.35 334 T
0 F
(\0503b\051) 520.01 334 T
0.22 (The phosphate not con) 108 306 P
0.22 (v) 217.15 306 P
0.22 (erted to DOP results in an instantaneous do) 222.97 306 P
0.22 (wnw) 431.83 306 P
0.22 (ard \337ux of partic-) 455.04 306 P
(ulate or) 72 292 T
(g) 108.11 292 T
(anic phosphorus at the compensation depth:) 114.05 292 T
(.) 370.15 264 T
(\0504\051) 526.01 264 T
(This \337ux decreases with depth due to remineralization follo) 72 236 T
(wing a po) 357.66 236 T
(wer la) 404.69 236 T
(w relationship:) 434.16 236 T
(,) 311.97 208 T
2 F
(.) 397.56 208 T
0 F
(\0505\051) 526.01 208 T
1.24 (The po) 72 180 P
1.24 (wer la) 106.6 180 P
1.24 (w form has the adv) 137.31 180 P
1.24 (antage o) 233.95 180 P
1.24 (v) 275.33 180 P
1.24 (er e) 281.15 180 P
1.24 (xponential forms in that it captures the observ) 299.86 180 P
1.24 (ed) 528.67 180 P
0.19 (increase in remineralization length scale with depth. The source of phosphate belo) 72 166 P
0.19 (w the compen-) 468.31 166 P
(sation depth due to remineralization of particulate and dissolv) 72 152 T
(ed or) 368.45 152 T
(g) 392.56 152 T
(anic phosphorus is then:) 398.5 152 T
(,) 320.96 124 T
2 F
(.) 397.56 124 T
0 F
(\0506\051) 526.01 124 T
1.13 (It is assumed that an) 72 96 P
1.13 (y \337ux reaching the sediments is remineralized there and dif) 174.35 96 P
1.13 (fused instanta-) 468.55 96 P
0.79 (neously back into the w) 72 82 P
0.79 (ater column. Therefore, the bottom box of the model will ha) 189.02 82 P
0.79 (v) 485.29 82 P
0.79 (e an addi-) 491.11 82 P
72 72 540 720 C
180 474.96 326.92 504.66 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(J) 181.07 488 T
0 9 Q
(P) 187.42 484.4 T
(O) 192.95 484.4 T
(4) 199.98 484.4 T
0 12 Q
(1) 229.94 494.66 T
3 F
(t) 230.3 479.96 T
0 F
(-) 229.94 488 T
(-) 231.94 488 T
(-) 231.94 488 T
(\320) 223.24 488 T
(P) 246.58 488 T
(O) 253.96 488 T
0 9 Q
(4) 263.08 484.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 241.73 488 T
(]) 268.43 488 T
0 F
(P) 289.27 488 T
(O) 296.65 488 T
0 9 Q
(4) 305.77 484.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 284.42 488 T
(]) 311.12 488 T
0 9 Q
(*) 315.58 492.5 T
0 12 Q
(\320) 275.43 488 T
3 F
(\050) 236.89 488 T
(\051) 320.93 488 T
0 F
(=) 210.48 488 T
72 72 540 720 C
0 0 612 792 C
342 480.15 423.93 502.5 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(P) 347.85 488 T
(O) 355.23 488 T
0 9 Q
(4) 364.35 484.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 343 488 T
(]) 369.7 488 T
0 F
(P) 391.13 488 T
(O) 398.51 488 T
0 9 Q
(4) 407.63 484.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 386.28 488 T
(]) 412.98 488 T
0 9 Q
(*) 417.43 492.5 T
3 12 Q
(>) 376.69 488 T
0 0 612 792 C
450 466.15 487.56 484 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(D) 451.1 474 T
(D) 472.44 474 T
2 9 Q
(c) 481.56 470.4 T
3 12 Q
(<) 462.76 474 T
0 0 612 792 C
180 452.15 231.24 470 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(J) 181.07 460 T
0 9 Q
(P) 187.42 456.4 T
(O) 192.95 456.4 T
(4) 199.98 456.4 T
0 12 Q
(0) 223.24 460 T
(=) 210.48 460 T
0 0 612 792 C
342 452.15 423.93 474.5 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(P) 347.85 460 T
(O) 355.23 460 T
0 9 Q
(4) 364.35 456.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 343 460 T
(]) 369.7 460 T
0 F
(P) 391.13 460 T
(O) 398.51 460 T
0 9 Q
(4) 407.63 456.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 386.28 460 T
(]) 412.98 460 T
0 9 Q
(*) 417.43 464.5 T
3 12 Q
(\243) 376.69 460 T
0 0 612 792 C
216 354.15 301.12 372 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(J) 217.07 362 T
0 9 Q
(D) 223.42 358.4 T
(O) 230.45 358.4 T
(P) 237.48 358.4 T
3 12 Q
(s) 267.7 362 T
2 F
(J) 275.71 362 T
0 9 Q
(P) 282.06 358.4 T
(O) 287.6 358.4 T
(4) 294.62 358.4 T
0 12 Q
(\320) 261.24 362 T
(=) 248.48 362 T
0 0 612 792 C
360 354.15 397.56 372 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(D) 361.1 362 T
(D) 382.44 362 T
2 9 Q
(c) 391.56 358.4 T
3 12 Q
(<) 372.76 362 T
0 0 612 792 C
216 326.15 312.21 344 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(J) 217.07 334 T
0 9 Q
(D) 223.42 330.4 T
(O) 230.45 330.4 T
(P) 237.48 330.4 T
3 12 Q
(k) 267.7 334 T
0 F
(D) 279.95 334 T
(O) 289.32 334 T
(P) 298.69 334 T
3 F
([) 275.1 334 T
(]) 306.21 334 T
0 F
(\320) 261.24 334 T
(=) 248.48 334 T
0 0 612 792 C
360 329 390.35 344 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(D) 361.1 334 T
0 F
(0) 382.35 334 T
3 F
(>) 372.76 334 T
0 0 612 792 C
72 72 540 720 C
238.85 250.89 370.15 281.97 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(F) 239.85 264 T
2 9 Q
(c) 248.04 260.4 T
0 12 Q
(1) 275.65 264 T
3 F
(s) 293.65 264 T
0 F
(\320) 284.65 264 T
3 F
(\050) 270.8 264 T
(\051) 301.73 264 T
2 F
(J) 329.27 264 T
0 F
(\320) 322.74 264 T
0 9 Q
(P) 335.62 260.4 T
(O) 341.15 260.4 T
(4) 348.18 260.4 T
2 12 Q
(D) 359.49 264 T
(d) 353.39 264 T
0 9 Q
(0) 311.37 255.14 T
2 F
(D) 311.44 274.22 T
2 6 Q
(c) 318.28 272.12 T
3 18 Q
(\362) 306.44 259.31 T
0 12 Q
(=) 258.04 264 T
72 72 540 720 C
0 0 612 792 C
216 191.74 311.97 225.92 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(F) 217 208 T
(D) 230.39 208 T
3 F
(\050) 225.45 208 T
(\051) 239.91 208 T
2 F
(F) 262.66 208 T
2 9 Q
(c) 270.86 204.4 T
2 12 Q
(D) 283.58 214.94 T
(D) 281.36 200.24 T
2 9 Q
(c) 290.48 196.64 T
0 12 Q
(-) 281.26 208.28 T
(-) 283.26 208.28 T
(-) 285.26 208.28 T
(-) 287.26 208.28 T
(-) 289.26 208.28 T
(-) 290.48 208.28 T
3 F
(\350) 275.56 201.96 T
(\370) 294.37 201.96 T
(\346) 275.56 212.24 T
(\366) 294.37 212.24 T
2 9 Q
(a) 305.47 218.17 T
0 F
(\320) 300.63 218.17 T
0 12 Q
(=) 249.9 208 T
0 0 612 792 C
360 200.15 397.56 218 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(D) 361.1 208 T
(D) 382.44 208 T
2 9 Q
(c) 391.56 204.4 T
3 12 Q
(>) 372.76 208 T
0 0 612 792 C
216 110.96 320.96 140.66 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(J) 217.07 124 T
0 9 Q
(P) 223.42 120.4 T
(O) 228.95 120.4 T
(4) 235.98 120.4 T
3 12 Q
(\266) 266.4 130.66 T
2 F
(F) 273.04 130.66 T
3 F
(\266) 265.94 115.96 T
2 F
(D) 272.58 115.96 T
0 F
(-) 265.94 124 T
(-) 267.94 124 T
(-) 269.93 124 T
(-) 271.93 124 T
(-) 273.93 124 T
(-) 275.93 124 T
(-) 277.24 124 T
2 F
(J) 293.55 124 T
0 9 Q
(D) 299.89 120.4 T
(O) 306.92 120.4 T
(P) 313.95 120.4 T
0 12 Q
(\320) 284.48 124 T
(\320) 259.24 124 T
(=) 246.48 124 T
0 0 612 792 C
360 116.15 397.56 134 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(D) 361.1 124 T
(D) 382.44 124 T
2 9 Q
(c) 391.56 120.4 T
3 12 Q
(>) 372.76 124 T
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "2" 2
%%Page: "3" 3
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
 7 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(3) 303.5 36 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
(tional source of phosphate be) 72 712 T
(yond that gi) 212.46 712 T
(v) 269.5 712 T
(en by Equation \0506\051.) 275.32 712 T
1.33 (The assumption that particulate or) 108 698 P
1.33 (g) 277.1 698 P
1.33 (anic phosphorus produced in the production zone is) 283.04 698 P
- -0.06 (remineralized instantaneously in the consumption zone is reasonable, and is based on the f) 72 684 P
- -0.06 (act that) 505.07 684 P
0.49 (the particle sinking time scale \050~1 month\051 is much shorter than basin-wide adv) 72 670 P
0.49 (ecti) 454.85 670 P
0.49 (v) 471.87 670 P
0.49 (e time scales) 477.69 670 P
(\050~1-100 years\051.) 72 656 T
1.81 (Note that remineralization of or) 108 642 P
1.81 (g) 266.98 642 P
1.81 (anic phosphorus is assumed to be independent of the) 272.92 642 P
0.67 (amount of dissolv) 72 628 P
0.67 (ed oxygen present. This may not be strictly true, b) 159.17 628 P
0.67 (ut clearly there is clear e) 405.97 628 P
0.67 (vi-) 526.67 628 P
0.27 (dence of or) 72 614 P
0.27 (g) 126.31 614 P
0.27 (anic matter decomposition in anoxic re) 132.24 614 P
0.27 (gions as a result of denitri\336cation. W) 320.4 614 P
0.27 (e simply) 498.72 614 P
(assume that nitrate is as ef) 72 600 T
(fecti) 198.01 600 T
(v) 219.04 600 T
(e at oxidizing or) 224.86 600 T
(g) 302.96 600 T
(anic matter as oxygen.) 308.9 600 T
- -0.18 (W) 108 586 P
- -0.18 (e no) 118.37 586 P
- -0.18 (w must choose the parameters) 138.22 586 P
2 F
- -0.18 (D) 284.96 586 P
2 9.6 Q
- -0.14 (c) 293.62 583 P
0 12 Q
- -0.18 (,) 297.89 586 P
3 F
- -0.18 (t) 303.71 586 P
0 F
- -0.18 (,) 308.98 586 P
3 F
- -0.18 (s, k) 314.8 586 P
0 F
- -0.18 ( and) 334.44 586 P
2 F
- -0.18 (a) 357.41 586 P
0 F
- -0.18 (. All of these parameters are lik) 363.41 586 P
- -0.18 (ely to) 513.18 586 P
0.31 (ha) 72 572 P
0.31 (v) 83.09 572 P
0.31 (e spatial and temporal v) 88.91 572 P
0.31 (ariability) 204.48 572 P
0.31 (, b) 247.03 572 P
0.31 (ut in the interest of k) 259.1 572 P
0.31 (eeping this model as simple as possi-) 360.17 572 P
- -0 (ble, we will use constant v) 72 558 P
- -0 (alues. F) 199 558 P
- -0 (or) 236.15 558 P
2 F
- -0 (D) 249.15 558 P
2 9.6 Q
- -0 (c) 257.81 555 P
0 12 Q
- -0 (, I propose 75 m. This is based on the analysis of seasonal) 262.07 558 P
0.88 (oxygen v) 72 544 P
0.88 (ariations by Najjar and K) 116.91 544 P
0.88 (eeling \0501997\051. The) 241.43 544 P
0.88 (y inferred that the summertime compensa-) 331.98 544 P
0.03 (tion depth v) 72 530 P
0.03 (aries between about 50 and 100 m, depending on the latitude. F) 129.1 530 P
0.03 (or) 433.57 530 P
3 F
0.03 (t,) 446.6 530 P
0 F
0.03 (I propose a v) 457.9 530 P
0.03 (alue) 520.01 530 P
1.79 (of 30 days, which should be long enough to accommodate dif) 72 516 P
1.79 (ferences between observ) 385.21 516 P
1.79 (ed and) 506.56 516 P
0.71 (modeled circulation, yet short enough to pre) 72 502 P
0.71 (v) 288.28 502 P
0.71 (ent too much of a lag of surf) 294.1 502 P
0.71 (ace phosphate behind) 435.27 502 P
0.01 (the observ) 72 488 P
0.01 (ations. F) 121.36 488 P
0.01 (or) 162.53 488 P
2 F
0.01 (a) 175.54 488 P
0 F
0.01 (, I suggest using a v) 181.54 488 P
0.01 (alue of 0.9, which is close to what sediment traps yield) 276.61 488 P
- -0.03 (\050Martin) 72 474 P
2 F
- -0.03 (et al.) 111.63 474 P
0 F
- -0.03 (, 1987\051. Ev) 135.61 474 P
- -0.03 (en though there is concern that sediment traps do not adequately measure) 188.7 474 P
1.28 (\337ux in the upper fe) 72 460 P
1.28 (w hundred meters of the w) 168.14 460 P
1.28 (ater column, other lines of e) 302.72 460 P
1.28 (vidence support the) 443.46 460 P
- -0.26 (rapid drop-of) 72 446 P
- -0.26 (f in \337ux measured by sediment traps. A number of tracer) 135.09 446 P
- -0.26 (-based estimates of reminer-) 404.49 446 P
- -0.3 (alization in the upper fe) 72 432 P
- -0.3 (w hundred meters of the w) 184.49 432 P
- -0.3 (ater column yield remineralization length scales) 311.19 432 P
- -0.15 (of a fe) 72 418 P
- -0.15 (w hundred meters \050Sarmiento) 102.05 418 P
2 F
- -0.15 (et al.) 246.75 418 P
0 F
- -0.15 (, 1990; and references therein\051, similar to what Equation) 270.6 418 P
- -0.23 (\0505\051 with) 72 404 P
2 F
- -0.23 (a) 112.87 404 P
0 F
- -0.23 ( = 0.9 w) 118.87 404 P
- -0.23 (ould yield. This v) 157.5 404 P
- -0.23 (alue of) 241.19 404 P
2 F
- -0.23 (a) 276.73 404 P
0 F
- -0.23 ( also yields good results for phosphate distrib) 282.73 404 P
- -0.23 (utions in) 498.55 404 P
(GCMs \050Y) 72 390 T
(amanaka and T) 118.46 390 T
(ajika, 1996, 1997\051.) 190.81 390 T
0.95 (F) 108 376 P
0.95 (or) 114.49 376 P
3 F
0.95 (k) 128.44 376 P
0 F
0.95 (, the semi-labile DOP consumption rate constant, I suggest a v) 135.02 376 P
0.95 (alue of \0500.5 year\051) 443.52 376 P
0 9.6 Q
0.76 (-1) 529 380.8 P
0 12 Q
0.95 (.) 537 376 P
0.12 (T) 72 362 P
0.12 (w) 78.37 362 P
0.12 (o lines of observ) 86.92 362 P
0.12 (ational e) 166.63 362 P
0.12 (vidence support this v) 207.45 362 P
0.12 (alue of) 313.17 362 P
3 F
0.12 (k) 349.4 362 P
0 F
0.12 (. First of all, DOC in the Sar) 355.99 362 P
0.12 (g) 492.95 362 P
0.12 (asso Sea) 498.89 362 P
0.59 (at 200 m depth is observ) 72 348 P
0.59 (ed to decrease from about 62) 192.45 348 P
3 F
0.59 (m) 337.97 348 P
0 F
0.59 (mol kg) 344.88 348 P
0 9.6 Q
0.47 (-1) 379.14 352.8 P
0 12 Q
0.59 ( in February-March to 52) 387.14 348 P
3 F
0.59 (m) 514.41 348 P
0 F
0.59 (mol) 521.33 348 P
0.28 (kg) 72 334 P
0 9.6 Q
0.22 (-1) 84 338.8 P
0 12 Q
0.28 ( in July-August \050Carlson) 92 334 P
2 F
0.28 (et al.,) 214.43 334 P
0 F
0.28 ( 1994\051, about a \336v) 241.71 334 P
0.28 (e-month time period. Estimating the refrac-) 330.29 334 P
0.6 (tory component of DOC to be the concentration at 1000 m, 46) 72 320 P
3 F
0.6 (m) 380.79 320 P
0 F
0.6 (mol kg) 387.7 320 P
0 9.6 Q
0.48 (-1) 421.97 324.8 P
0 12 Q
0.6 ( \050Hansell) 429.96 320 P
2 F
0.6 (et al.,) 477.81 320 P
0 F
0.6 ( 1995\051,) 505.41 320 P
0 (the semi-refractory pool decreases from 16 to 6) 72 306 P
3 F
0 (m) 302.61 306 P
0 F
0 (mol kg) 309.52 306 P
0 9.6 Q
0 (-1) 343.2 310.8 P
0 12 Q
0 (. \050The labile pool is assumed to be ne) 351.2 306 P
0 (g-) 530 306 P
(ligibly small.\051 W) 72 292 T
(e can then estimate) 152.71 292 T
3 F
(k) 247.36 292 T
0 F
( by rearranging \0503b\051, substituting DOC for DOP:) 253.94 292 T
(.) 432.4 264 T
(\0507\051) 526.01 264 T
0.25 (Mineralization e) 72 236 P
0.25 (xperiments by Hansell) 151.06 236 P
2 F
0.25 (et al.) 262.8 236 P
0 F
0.25 ( \0501995\051 also support this v) 287.06 236 P
0.25 (alue of) 413.68 236 P
3 F
0.25 (k) 450.18 236 P
0 F
0.25 (. The) 456.77 236 P
0.25 (y found that) 481.5 236 P
0.12 (DOC in w) 72 222 P
0.12 (ater tak) 121.46 222 P
0.12 (en from 200 m depth in the Sar) 157.12 222 P
0.12 (g) 307.42 222 P
0.12 (asso Sea decreases at a rate of 0.044) 313.36 222 P
3 F
0.12 (m) 491.3 222 P
0 F
0.12 (mol kg) 498.21 222 P
0 9.6 Q
0.1 (-1) 532 226.8 P
0 12 Q
- -0.19 (day) 72 208 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.15 (-1) 89.33 212.8 P
0 12 Q
- -0.19 (, for a 101 day dark incubation, only slightly less than inferred from the observ) 97.32 208 P
- -0.19 (ed decrease at) 473.08 208 P
0.72 (200 m depth, 0.067) 72 194 P
3 F
0.72 (m) 170.89 194 P
0 F
0.72 (mol kg) 177.8 194 P
0 9.6 Q
0.58 (-1) 212.19 198.8 P
0 12 Q
0.72 ( day) 220.19 194 P
0 9.6 Q
0.58 (-1) 241.24 198.8 P
0 12 Q
0.72 ( from the Carlson) 249.24 194 P
2 F
0.72 (et al.) 339.45 194 P
0 F
0.72 ( \0501994\051 data. A tw) 364.17 194 P
0.72 (o-year lifetime of) 454.58 194 P
1.34 (semi-labile DOC w) 72 180 P
1.34 (as also estimated by Y) 167.87 180 P
1.34 (amanaka and T) 280 180 P
1.34 (ajika \0501997\051 by \336tting a three-dimen-) 355.02 180 P
- -0.1 (sional model to v) 72 166 P
- -0.1 (ertical and horizontal distrib) 154.53 166 P
- -0.1 (utions of DOC in the equatorial P) 289.65 166 P
- -0.1 (aci\336c measured by) 450.22 166 P
(Peltzer and Hayw) 72 152 T
(ard \0501996\051 and Og) 157.19 152 T
(a) 245.44 152 T
(w) 250.58 152 T
(a and K) 259.13 152 T
(oik) 296.03 152 T
(e \050manuscript in preparation\051.) 311.24 152 T
1.12 (Estimating a v) 108 138 P
1.12 (alue of) 179.28 138 P
3 F
1.12 (s) 217.51 138 P
0 F
1.12 ( is dif) 224.75 138 P
1.12 (\336cult because it has not been estimated from observ) 254.03 138 P
1.12 (ations) 511.33 138 P
- -0.03 (directly) 72 124 P
- -0.03 (. I suggest a v) 107.88 124 P
- -0.03 (alue of 0.67 for) 173.8 124 P
3 F
- -0.03 (s) 250.68 124 P
0 F
- -0.03 (, which w) 257.91 124 P
- -0.03 (as determined by Y) 304.73 124 P
- -0.03 (amanaka and T) 397.1 124 P
- -0.03 (ajika \0501997\051 in) 469.4 124 P
1.48 (the data-\336tting e) 72 110 P
1.48 (x) 153.43 110 P
1.48 (ercise mentioned abo) 159.25 110 P
1.48 (v) 264 110 P
1.48 (e. It is important to realize that the fraction of the net) 269.82 110 P
0.66 (do) 72 96 P
0.66 (wnw) 83.7 96 P
0.66 (ard \337ux of or) 106.91 96 P
0.66 (g) 171.66 96 P
0.66 (anic matter across the compensation depth that is in dissolv) 177.6 96 P
0.66 (ed form is less) 468.36 96 P
0.52 (than) 72 82 P
3 F
0.52 (s) 96.18 82 P
0 F
0.52 (. This is because DOM is also remineralized abo) 103.42 82 P
0.52 (v) 340.32 82 P
0.52 (e the compensation depth. F) 346.14 82 P
0.52 (or e) 483.01 82 P
0.52 (xample,) 501.67 82 P
176.6 246.74 432.4 285.44 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(k) 177.6 264 T
2 F
(J) 214.8 273.51 T
0 9 Q
(D) 221.15 269.91 T
(O) 228.18 269.91 T
(C) 235.21 269.91 T
0 12 Q
(D) 214.6 255.96 T
(O) 223.97 255.96 T
(C) 233.34 255.96 T
3 F
([) 209.75 255.96 T
(]) 242.19 255.96 T
0 F
(-) 209.75 264 T
(-) 211.75 264 T
(-) 213.74 264 T
(-) 215.74 264 T
(-) 217.74 264 T
(-) 219.74 264 T
(-) 221.74 264 T
(-) 223.73 264 T
(-) 225.73 264 T
(-) 227.73 264 T
(-) 229.73 264 T
(-) 231.73 264 T
(-) 233.72 264 T
(-) 235.72 264 T
(-) 237.72 264 T
(-) 239.72 264 T
(-) 241.72 264 T
(-) 242.19 264 T
(\320) 203.05 264 T
(10) 277.01 270.94 T
3 F
(m) 289.72 270.94 T
0 F
(mol kg) 297.34 270.94 T
0 9 Q
(1) 336.31 277.69 T
(\320) 331.47 277.69 T
0 12 Q
(\320) 270.56 270.94 T
3 F
(\050) 265.71 270.94 T
(\051) 341.66 270.94 T
0 F
(5) 358.51 270.94 T
(mon) 365.21 270.94 T
3 F
(\050) 353.66 270.94 T
(\051) 387.4 270.94 T
(\244) 348.66 270.94 T
0 F
(11) 296.66 251.74 T
3 F
(m) 309.36 251.74 T
0 F
(mol kg) 316.98 251.74 T
0 9 Q
(1) 355.95 258.49 T
(\320) 351.11 258.49 T
0 12 Q
(-) 265.71 264.28 T
(-) 267.71 264.28 T
(-) 269.71 264.28 T
(-) 271.7 264.28 T
(-) 273.7 264.28 T
(-) 275.7 264.28 T
(-) 277.7 264.28 T
(-) 279.7 264.28 T
(-) 281.69 264.28 T
(-) 283.69 264.28 T
(-) 285.69 264.28 T
(-) 287.69 264.28 T
(-) 289.69 264.28 T
(-) 291.68 264.28 T
(-) 293.68 264.28 T
(-) 295.68 264.28 T
(-) 297.68 264.28 T
(-) 299.68 264.28 T
(-) 301.67 264.28 T
(-) 303.67 264.28 T
(-) 305.67 264.28 T
(-) 307.67 264.28 T
(-) 309.67 264.28 T
(-) 311.66 264.28 T
(-) 313.66 264.28 T
(-) 315.66 264.28 T
(-) 317.66 264.28 T
(-) 319.66 264.28 T
(-) 321.65 264.28 T
(-) 323.65 264.28 T
(-) 325.65 264.28 T
(-) 327.65 264.28 T
(-) 329.65 264.28 T
(-) 331.64 264.28 T
(-) 333.64 264.28 T
(-) 335.64 264.28 T
(-) 337.64 264.28 T
(-) 339.64 264.28 T
(-) 341.63 264.28 T
(-) 343.63 264.28 T
(-) 345.63 264.28 T
(-) 347.63 264.28 T
(-) 349.63 264.28 T
(-) 351.62 264.28 T
(-) 353.62 264.28 T
(-) 355.62 264.28 T
(-) 357.62 264.28 T
(-) 359.62 264.28 T
(-) 361.61 264.28 T
(-) 363.61 264.28 T
(-) 365.61 264.28 T
(-) 367.61 264.28 T
(-) 369.61 264.28 T
(-) 371.6 264.28 T
(-) 373.6 264.28 T
(-) 375.6 264.28 T
(-) 377.6 264.28 T
(-) 379.6 264.28 T
(-) 381.59 264.28 T
(-) 383.59 264.28 T
(-) 385.59 264.28 T
(-) 387.4 264.28 T
(1) 414.31 270.94 T
(0.5) 404.46 256.24 T
(yr) 420.17 256.24 T
(-) 404.46 264.28 T
(-) 406.46 264.28 T
(-) 408.46 264.28 T
(-) 410.45 264.28 T
(-) 412.45 264.28 T
(-) 414.45 264.28 T
(-) 416.45 264.28 T
(-) 418.45 264.28 T
(-) 420.45 264.28 T
(-) 422.44 264.28 T
(-) 424.44 264.28 T
(-) 426.17 264.28 T
3 F
(@) 394.64 264 T
0 F
(\320) 259.02 264 T
3 F
(@) 249.43 264 T
0 F
(=) 190.29 264 T
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "3" 3
%%Page: "4" 4
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
 7 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(4) 303.5 36 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
- -0.04 (with) 72 712 P
3 F
- -0.04 (s) 96.29 712 P
0 F
- -0.04 ( = 0.67, Y) 103.53 712 P
- -0.04 (amanaka and T) 150.63 712 P
- -0.04 (ajika \0501997\051 found that, on a global scale, DOC accounted for less) 222.88 712 P
1.49 (than 30% of the do) 72 698 P
1.49 (wnw) 168.97 698 P
1.49 (ard \337ux of or) 192.17 698 P
1.49 (g) 259.4 698 P
1.49 (anic matter across 100 m depth. This can be compared) 265.35 698 P
- -0.05 (directly with re) 72 684 P
- -0.05 (gional observ) 145.04 684 P
- -0.05 (ation-based estimates of the fraction of e) 209.68 684 P
- -0.05 (xport production that occurs) 404.5 684 P
- -0.25 (in dissolv) 72 670 P
- -0.25 (ed form. This should be done with caution, ho) 117.91 670 P
- -0.25 (we) 336.89 670 P
- -0.25 (v) 350.58 670 P
- -0.25 (er) 356.4 670 P
- -0.25 (, because it is lik) 365.25 670 P
- -0.25 (ely that this fraction) 444.44 670 P
0.63 (v) 72 656 P
0.63 (aries spatially) 77.7 656 P
0.63 (. Carlson) 143.88 656 P
2 F
0.63 (et al.) 191.48 656 P
0 F
0.63 ( \0501994\051 estimated that do) 216.12 656 P
0.63 (wnw) 338.35 656 P
0.63 (ard mixing of DOC accounts for 23-) 361.55 656 P
- -0.04 (42% of the ne) 72 642 P
- -0.04 (w production in the Sar) 138.56 642 P
- -0.04 (g) 250.83 642 P
- -0.04 (asso Sea. Thomas) 256.77 642 P
2 F
- -0.04 (et al.) 345.3 642 P
0 F
- -0.04 ( \0501995\051 \336nd, using DOC and nitrate) 369.26 642 P
- -0.12 (measurements with a simple box model, that 20) 72 628 P
3 F
- -0.12 ( \261) 300.46 628 P
0 F
- -0.12 ( 15% of the or) 309.93 628 P
- -0.12 (g) 377.88 628 P
- -0.12 (anic matter e) 383.82 628 P
- -0.12 (xport in the tropical) 445.37 628 P
- -0.06 (Atlantic is in dissolv) 72 614 P
- -0.06 (ed form. Guo) 170.66 614 P
2 F
- -0.06 (et al.) 237.8 614 P
0 F
- -0.06 ( \0501994\051 used A) 261.74 614 P
- -0.06 (OU-DOC relationships in the Gulf of Me) 332.56 614 P
- -0.06 (x-) 530 614 P
- -0.09 (ico, as well as a simple 1-D model, to estimate that DOC accounts for about 20-30% of the do) 72 600 P
- -0.09 (wn-) 521.34 600 P
1.84 (w) 72 586 P
1.84 (ard \337ux of or) 80.54 586 P
1.84 (g) 148.82 586 P
1.84 (anic carbon. Finally) 154.76 586 P
1.84 (, Borsheim and Myklestad \0501997\051 sho) 253.31 586 P
1.84 (w that the seasonal) 443.51 586 P
0.15 (accumulation of DOC in the mix) 72 572 P
0.15 (ed layer is 20-60% of the ne) 230.23 572 P
0.15 (w production in the Norwe) 366.13 572 P
0.15 (gian Sea.) 495.86 572 P
0.12 (This fraction is an upper limit on the amount of or) 72 558 P
0.12 (g) 313.62 558 P
0.12 (anic matter e) 319.56 558 P
0.12 (xported in dissolv) 381.6 558 P
0.12 (ed form. All of) 467.66 558 P
1.58 (the observ) 72 544 P
1.58 (ation-based estimates appear to be in reasonable agreement with the Y) 122.93 544 P
1.58 (amanaka and) 475.45 544 P
(T) 72 530 T
(ajika \0501997\051 estimate based on) 78.37 530 T
3 F
(s) 228.01 530 T
0 F
( = 0.67.) 235.25 530 T
- -0.11 (The \336nal component to be speci\336ed for the phosphorus model is [PO) 108 516 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.09 (4) 437.74 513 P
0 12 Q
- -0.11 (]) 442.54 516 P
2 F
- -0.11 (*) 446.53 516 P
0 F
- -0.11 (, the observ) 452.53 516 P
- -0.11 (ed dis-) 507.78 516 P
3.03 (trib) 72 502 P
3.03 (ution of phosphate abo) 88.43 502 P
3.03 (v) 206.99 502 P
3.03 (e the compensation depth. The climatological monthly maps of) 212.81 502 P
1.02 (Louanchi and Najjar \050in preparation\051 will be used) 72 488 P
0 9.6 Q
0.82 (1) 316.77 492.8 P
0 12 Q
1.02 (. These maps were created from the quality-) 321.57 488 P
0 (controlled phosphate data of the 1994 W) 72 474 P
0 (orld Ocean Atlas \050Conkright) 266.35 474 P
2 F
0 (et al.,) 406.34 474 P
0 F
0 ( 1994\051 using the inter-) 433.34 474 P
- -0.18 (polation/smoothing technique of Najjar and K) 72 460 P
- -0.18 (eeling \0501997\051. Phosphate v) 291.78 460 P
- -0.18 (alues in re) 419.59 460 P
- -0.18 (gions of sparse) 468.37 460 P
2.48 (data co) 72 446 P
2.48 (v) 108.62 446 P
2.48 (erage were determined from phosphate-temperature relationships. Full details of the) 114.44 446 P
(maps will be gi) 72 432 T
(v) 145.37 432 T
(en in Louanchi and Najjar \050in preparation\051.) 151.19 432 T
1 F
(2. Oxygen) 72 404 T
0 F
0.52 (The oxygen model closely follo) 108 376 P
0.52 (ws that of phosphate, being link) 262.44 376 P
0.52 (ed by the Red\336eld Ratio,) 418.25 376 P
2 F
0.02 (r) 72 362 P
0 9.6 Q
0.01 (O2:P) 76.67 359 P
0 12 Q
0.02 (. The main dif) 95.07 362 P
0.02 (ferences are that: \0501\051 oxygen consumption is assumed to be halted belo) 162.82 362 P
0.02 (w some) 502.99 362 P
1.26 (critical oxygen le) 72 348 P
1.26 (v) 157.54 348 P
1.26 (el [O) 163.36 348 P
0 9.6 Q
1.01 (2) 188.95 345 P
0 12 Q
1.26 (]\373 and \0502\051 oxygen crosses the air) 193.75 348 P
1.26 (-sea interf) 355.7 348 P
1.26 (ace. Oxygen is lik) 405.16 348 P
1.26 (ely to go) 495.48 348 P
- -0.2 (belo) 72 334 P
- -0.2 (w the critical le) 92.36 334 P
- -0.2 (v) 165.76 334 P
- -0.2 (el belo) 171.58 334 P
- -0.2 (w the compensation depth. The ocean will then be a net source of oxy-) 203.41 334 P
0.57 (gen to the atmosphere because oxygen production abo) 72 320 P
0.57 (v) 336.11 320 P
0.57 (e the compensation depth will be greater) 341.93 320 P
- -0.18 (than oxygen consumption belo) 72 306 P
- -0.18 (w the compensation depth. This imbalance is probably made up for) 218.82 306 P
(by nitrogen \336xation,) 72 292 T
2 F
(NF) 172.67 292 T
0 F
(, in surf) 187.04 292 T
(ace w) 223.92 292 T
(aters. Thus we ha) 251.45 292 T
(v) 335.18 292 T
(e) 341 292 T
(,) 339.8 264 T
(\0507\051) 526.01 250 T
(,) 260.02 236 T
2 F
(.) 427.72 236 T
- -0.07 (NF) 72 208 P
0 F
- -0.07 ( is determined so as to e) 87.34 208 P
- -0.07 (xactly balance the marine oxygen b) 202.07 208 P
- -0.07 (udget. Thus, the v) 371.78 208 P
- -0.07 (olume inte) 457.66 208 P
- -0.07 (gral of) 508.41 208 P
2 F
2.08 (NF) 72 194 P
0 F
2.08 ( should be equal to the v) 87.34 194 P
2.08 (olume inte) 216.92 194 P
2.08 (gral of or) 269.82 194 P
2.08 (g) 318.43 194 P
2.08 (anic phosphorus remineralization in anoxic) 324.37 194 P
0.38 (re) 72 180 P
0.38 (gions, multiplied by) 81.14 180 P
2 F
0.38 (r) 181.62 180 P
0 9.6 Q
0.3 (O2:P) 186.29 177 P
0 12 Q
0.38 (. My suggestion is that we decide where nitrogen \336xation tak) 204.7 180 P
0.38 (es place) 501.31 180 P
1.03 (and mak) 72 166 P
1.03 (e it spatially constant within that v) 113.91 166 P
1.03 (olume. Nitrogen \336xation tak) 285.2 166 P
1.03 (es place in lo) 424.18 166 P
1.03 (w nutrient) 489.97 166 P
0.29 (w) 72 152 P
0.29 (aters, so it w) 80.54 152 P
0.29 (ould probably be most appropriate to distrib) 141.96 152 P
0.29 (ute) 354.8 152 P
2 F
0.29 (NF) 372.75 152 P
0 F
0.29 ( o) 388.09 152 P
0.29 (v) 397.2 152 P
0.29 (er these w) 403.02 152 P
0.29 (aters. I suggest, in) 452.13 152 P
1.13 (the interest of simplicity) 72 138 P
1.13 (, that we let) 191.61 138 P
2 F
1.13 (NF) 255.11 138 P
0 F
1.13 ( be spatially constant throughout the whole production) 270.45 138 P
(layer) 72 124 T
(. Either w) 95.33 124 T
(ay we w) 142.2 124 T
(ould ha) 182.06 124 T
(v) 217.49 124 T
(e:) 223.31 124 T
72 84 540 99 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
81 97 225 97 2 L
0.5 H
2 Z
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
N
0 0 612 792 C
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(1.) 90 77.33 T
(Surf) 102 77.33 T
(ace maps can be vie) 119.12 77.33 T
(wed by anon) 198.84 77.33 T
(ymous ftp at ftp.essc.psu.edu in the directory /pub/meteo/ferial.) 249.79 77.33 T
216 254.8 339.8 274 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(J) 217.07 264 T
0 9 Q
(O) 223.42 260.4 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 6 Q
(2) 230.26 258.3 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
(r) 261.02 264 T
0 9 Q
(O2:P) 266.42 260.4 T
2 12 Q
(J) 285.7 264 T
0 9 Q
(P) 292.05 260.4 T
(O) 297.58 260.4 T
(4) 304.61 260.4 T
0 12 Q
(\320) 252.02 264 T
2 F
(N) 321.35 264 T
(F) 330.06 264 T
0 F
(\320) 312.11 264 T
(=) 239.26 264 T
0 0 612 792 C
360 256.15 427.72 274 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(O) 365.85 264 T
0 9 Q
(2) 374.97 260.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 361 264 T
(]) 380.32 264 T
0 F
(O) 401.75 264 T
0 9 Q
(2) 410.87 260.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 396.9 264 T
(]) 416.22 264 T
(\260) 420.92 264 T
(>) 387.31 264 T
0 0 612 792 C
216 226.8 260.02 246 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(J) 217.07 236 T
0 9 Q
(O) 223.42 232.4 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 6 Q
(2) 230.26 230.3 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
(0) 252.02 236 T
(=) 239.26 236 T
0 0 612 792 C
360 228.15 427.72 246 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(O) 365.85 236 T
0 9 Q
(2) 374.97 232.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 361 236 T
(]) 380.32 236 T
0 F
(O) 401.75 236 T
0 9 Q
(2) 410.87 232.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 396.9 236 T
(]) 416.22 236 T
(\260) 420.92 236 T
(<) 387.31 236 T
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "4" 4
%%Page: "5" 5
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
 7 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(5) 303.5 36 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
(,) 388.99 698 T
(\0508\051) 526.01 698 T
0.47 (where) 72 656 P
2 F
0.47 (V) 104.79 656 P
2 9.6 Q
0.38 (N) 112.12 653 P
0 12 Q
0.47 ( is the v) 118.53 656 P
0.47 (olume o) 157.38 656 P
0.47 (v) 196.67 656 P
0.47 (er which nitrogen \336xation occurs. I suggest that) 202.49 656 P
2 F
0.47 (V) 437.93 656 P
2 9.6 Q
0.38 (N) 445.26 653 P
0 12 Q
0.47 ( is simply the v) 451.66 656 P
0.47 (ol-) 526.67 656 P
- -0.22 (ume of the production zone instead of, say) 72 642 P
- -0.22 (, the v) 273.68 642 P
- -0.22 (olume of w) 302.67 642 P
- -0.22 (ater that has nutrient concentrations or) 356.78 642 P
(producti) 72 628 T
(vity le) 111.7 628 T
(v) 141.73 628 T
(els belo) 147.55 628 T
(w some critical v) 184.25 628 T
(alue.) 266.27 628 T
0.49 (W) 108 614 P
0.49 (e need to pick v) 118.37 614 P
0.49 (alues of) 196.02 614 P
2 F
0.49 (r) 237.67 614 P
0 9.6 Q
0.39 (O2:P) 242.33 611 P
0 12 Q
0.49 ( and [O) 262.07 614 P
0 9.6 Q
0.39 (2) 299.05 611 P
0 12 Q
0.49 (]\373. F) 303.85 614 P
0.49 (or) 324.82 614 P
2 F
0.49 (r) 338.31 614 P
0 9.6 Q
0.39 (O2:P) 342.98 611 P
0 12 Q
0.49 (, I suggest the v) 361.38 614 P
0.49 (alue of 170 based on) 438.72 614 P
- -0.04 (the w) 72 600 P
- -0.04 (ork of Anderson and Sarmiento \0501994\051. F) 98.17 600 P
- -0.04 (or [O) 296.73 600 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.03 (2) 322.35 597 P
0 12 Q
- -0.04 (]\373, I suggest a v) 327.14 600 P
- -0.04 (alue of 4) 401.01 600 P
3 F
- -0.04 (m) 445.88 600 P
0 F
- -0.04 (mol kg) 452.79 600 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.03 (-1) 486.42 604.8 P
0 12 Q
- -0.04 (, the oxy-) 494.42 600 P
1.73 (gen concentration belo) 72 586 P
1.73 (w which zooplankton ab) 184.46 586 P
1.73 (undance drops rapidly \050Saltzman and W) 307.04 586 P
1.73 (ishner) 508.15 586 P
1.73 (,) 537 586 P
(1997; and references therein\051.) 72 572 T
0.46 (The sea-to-air \337ux of oxygen,) 108 558 P
0.46 (, is a boundary condition and is parameterized using a) 277.28 558 P
1.75 (simple transfer v) 72 544 P
1.75 (elocity formulation; b) 155.97 544 P
1.75 (ubble-induced supersaturation is not included. Thus we) 263.89 544 P
(ha) 72 530 T
(v) 83.09 530 T
(e) 88.91 530 T
(,) 372.65 502 T
(\0509\051) 526.01 502 T
0.13 (where) 72 474 P
2 F
0.13 (k) 104.44 474 P
2 9.6 Q
0.1 (w) 109.77 471 P
0 12 Q
0.13 ( is the g) 116.17 474 P
0.13 (as transfer v) 154.16 474 P
0.13 (elocity for oxygen, [O) 212.87 474 P
0 9.6 Q
0.1 (2) 319.89 471 P
0 12 Q
0.13 (]) 324.7 474 P
0 9.6 Q
0.1 (s) 328.69 471 P
0 12 Q
0.13 ( is the surf) 332.42 474 P
0.13 (ace ocean oxygen concentration,) 383.01 474 P
0.04 (and [O) 72 460 P
0 9.6 Q
0.03 (2) 105.03 457 P
0 12 Q
0.04 (]) 109.83 460 P
0 9.6 Q
0.03 (sat) 113.82 457 P
0 12 Q
0.04 ( is the oxygen saturation concentration. [O) 124.49 460 P
0 9.6 Q
0.03 (2) 329.04 457 P
0 12 Q
0.04 (]) 333.84 460 P
0 9.6 Q
0.03 (s) 337.83 457 P
0 12 Q
0.04 ( is predicted by your model and [O) 341.57 460 P
0 9.6 Q
0.03 (2) 509.49 457 P
0 12 Q
0.04 (]) 514.29 460 P
0 9.6 Q
0.03 (sat) 518.29 457 P
0 12 Q
0.04 ( is) 528.96 460 P
1.01 (computed from the surf) 72 446 P
1.01 (ace temperature and salinity in your model using the formula of Garcia) 187.9 446 P
- -0.14 (and Gordon \0501992\051. F) 72 432 P
- -0.14 (or) 176.06 432 P
2 F
- -0.14 (k) 188.92 432 P
2 9.6 Q
- -0.11 (w) 194.24 429 P
0 12 Q
- -0.14 (, we use the formulation proposed by W) 199.87 432 P
- -0.14 (anninkhof \0501992\051 for long term) 390.58 432 P
(winds:) 72 418 T
(,) 382.7 390 T
(\05010\051) 520.01 390 T
1.02 (where) 72 362 P
2 F
1.02 (k) 105.33 362 P
2 9.6 Q
0.81 (w) 110.66 359 P
0 12 Q
1.02 ( has units of cm hr) 117.07 362 P
0 9.6 Q
0.81 (-1) 210.96 366.8 P
0 12 Q
1.02 (,) 218.96 362 P
2 F
1.02 (f) 225.98 362 P
0 F
1.02 ( is the fraction of the sea surf) 229.31 362 P
1.02 (ace co) 375.95 362 P
1.02 (v) 407.11 362 P
1.02 (ered with ice,) 412.93 362 P
1.02 ( is the) 509.29 362 P
- -0.04 (Schmidt number for oxygen and) 72 348 P
2 F
- -0.04 (u) 230.13 348 P
0 F
- -0.04 ( is the wind speed at 10 m in m s) 236.13 348 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.03 (-1) 393.1 352.8 P
0 12 Q
- -0.04 (. F) 401.09 348 P
- -0.04 (or) 413.55 348 P
- -0.04 (, we adopt the for-) 451.84 348 P
(mulation of K) 72 334 T
(eeling) 139.03 334 T
2 F
(et al.) 171.36 334 T
0 F
( \0501998\051:) 195.36 334 T
(,) 423.84 306 T
(\05011\051) 520.01 306 T
1.64 (where) 72 278 P
2 F
1.64 (T) 105.96 278 P
0 F
1.64 ( is the monthly-mean sea surf) 112.63 278 P
1.64 (ace temperature in \373C from Le) 262.36 278 P
1.64 (vitus and Bo) 415.88 278 P
1.64 (yer \0501994a\051.) 479.71 278 P
- -0.3 (OCMIP-1 winds \050Boutin and Etcheto, personal communication\051 and sea ice concentration \050W) 72 264 P
- -0.3 (alsh,) 517.67 264 P
(1978; Zw) 72 250 T
(ally) 118.21 250 T
2 F
(et al.,) 139.21 250 T
0 F
( 1983\051 will be used in Equation \05010\051.) 166.21 250 T
1 F
(3. Calcium carbonate) 72 222 T
0 F
3.87 (The simulation of calcium carbonate c) 108 194 P
3.87 (ycling is based on the parameterizations of) 311.47 194 P
0.35 (Y) 72 180 P
0.35 (amanaka and T) 79.46 180 P
0.35 (ajika \0501996\051. The formation of calcium carbonate in surf) 152.5 180 P
0.35 (ace w) 426.08 180 P
0.35 (aters is tied to the) 453.96 180 P
- -0.06 (rate of POC production in surf) 72 166 P
- -0.06 (ace w) 217.88 166 P
- -0.06 (aters. The so-called rain-ratio,) 245.34 166 P
2 F
- -0.06 (R) 392.37 166 P
0 F
- -0.06 (, the molar ratio of the do) 399.71 166 P
- -0.06 (wn-) 521.34 166 P
- -0.24 (w) 72 152 P
- -0.24 (ard POC \337ux to the do) 80.54 152 P
- -0.24 (wnw) 187.36 152 P
- -0.24 (ard CaCO) 210.57 152 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.19 (3) 258.65 149 P
0 12 Q
- -0.24 ( \337ux at the compensation depth, is assumed to be spatially) 263.45 152 P
1.1 (and temporally constant. Belo) 72 138 P
1.1 (w the compensation depth, the do) 218.99 138 P
1.1 (wnw) 385.5 138 P
1.1 (ard \337ux of CaCO) 408.71 138 P
0 9.6 Q
0.88 (3) 495 135 P
0 12 Q
1.1 (,) 499.8 138 P
2 F
1.1 (F) 506.9 138 P
0 9.6 Q
0.88 (Ca) 514.23 135 P
0 12 Q
1.1 (, is) 524.9 138 P
- -0.29 (assumed to decrease e) 72 124 P
- -0.29 (xponentially with a scale depth) 177.24 124 P
2 F
- -0.29 (d) 328.11 124 P
0 F
- -0.29 (. Indicating the source-sink function of dis-) 334.11 124 P
(solv) 72 110 T
(ed calcium as) 91.82 110 T
2 F
(J) 160.14 110 T
0 9.6 Q
(Ca) 165.47 107 T
0 12 Q
( we then ha) 176.13 110 T
(v) 230.88 110 T
(e) 236.7 110 T
(,) 323.64 82 T
238.01 678.84 388.99 717.79 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(N) 239.25 698 T
(F) 247.96 698 T
(r) 274.71 707.79 T
0 9 Q
(O2:P) 280.11 704.19 T
2 12 Q
(V) 278.94 690.24 T
2 9 Q
(N) 287.83 686.64 T
0 12 Q
(-) 274.71 698.28 T
(-) 276.7 698.28 T
(-) 278.7 698.28 T
(-) 280.7 698.28 T
(-) 282.7 698.28 T
(-) 284.7 698.28 T
(-) 286.69 698.28 T
(-) 288.69 698.28 T
(-) 290.69 698.28 T
(-) 292.69 698.28 T
(-) 294.61 698.28 T
2 F
(J) 325.76 698 T
0 9 Q
(P) 332.1 694.4 T
(O) 337.64 694.4 T
(4) 344.67 694.4 T
2 12 Q
(V) 355.87 698 T
(d) 349.87 698 T
0 9 Q
(O) 306.76 683.44 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 6 Q
(2) 313.6 681.34 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 9 Q
([) 303.13 683.44 T
(]) 317.24 683.44 T
0 F
(O) 333.31 683.44 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 6 Q
(2) 340.15 681.34 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 9 Q
([) 329.67 683.44 T
(]) 343.79 683.44 T
(\260) 347.31 683.44 T
(<) 322.48 683.44 T
3 18 Q
(\362) 310.27 693.31 T
0 12 Q
(=) 261.7 698 T
0 0 612 792 C
256.24 548.8 277.28 568 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(F) 257.24 558 T
0 9 Q
(O) 265.44 554.4 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 6 Q
(2) 272.28 552.3 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 612 792 C
236.35 492.8 372.65 512 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(F) 237.35 502 T
0 9 Q
(O) 245.55 498.4 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 6 Q
(2) 252.39 496.3 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
(k) 274.15 502 T
2 9 Q
(w) 280.14 498.4 T
0 12 Q
(O) 296.54 502 T
0 9 Q
(2) 305.66 498.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 291.69 502 T
(]) 311.01 502 T
2 9 Q
(s) 315.46 497.12 T
0 12 Q
(O) 335.81 502 T
0 9 Q
(2) 344.93 498.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 330.96 502 T
(]) 350.28 502 T
0 9 Q
(s) 354.73 497.12 T
(a) 358.76 497.12 T
(t) 363.29 497.12 T
0 12 Q
(\320) 321.96 502 T
3 F
(\050) 286.85 502 T
(\051) 366.65 502 T
0 F
(=) 261.38 502 T
0 0 612 792 C
226.3 377.24 382.7 411.14 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(k) 227.3 390 T
2 9 Q
(w) 233.29 386.4 T
0 12 Q
(1) 262.9 390 T
2 F
(f) 282.66 390 T
0 F
(\320) 271.9 390 T
3 F
(\050) 258.05 390 T
(\051) 288.6 390 T
0 F
(0.39) 293.3 390 T
2 F
(S) 320.71 401.14 T
(c) 327.42 401.14 T
0 9 Q
(O) 333.2 397.54 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 6 Q
(2) 340.04 395.44 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
(660) 322.88 382.24 T
(-) 320.71 390.28 T
(-) 322.71 390.28 T
(-) 324.71 390.28 T
(-) 326.7 390.28 T
(-) 328.7 390.28 T
(-) 330.7 390.28 T
(-) 332.7 390.28 T
(-) 334.7 390.28 T
(-) 336.7 390.28 T
(-) 338.69 390.28 T
(-) 339.05 390.28 T
3 F
(\350) 315.01 383.96 T
(\370) 342.93 383.96 T
(\346) 315.01 394.24 T
(\366) 342.93 394.24 T
0 9 Q
(1) 354.04 403.39 T
(2) 364.54 403.39 T
3 F
(\244) 360.79 403.39 T
0 F
(\320) 349.2 403.39 T
2 12 Q
(u) 369.74 390 T
0 9 Q
(2) 376.2 396.75 T
0 12 Q
(=) 245.29 390 T
0 0 612 792 C
483.96 352.8 509.29 372 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(S) 484.96 362 T
(c) 491.67 362 T
0 9 Q
(O) 497.45 358.4 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 6 Q
(2) 504.29 356.3 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 612 792 C
426.51 338.8 451.84 358 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(S) 427.51 348 T
(c) 434.21 348 T
0 9 Q
(O) 440 344.4 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 6 Q
(2) 446.84 342.3 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 612 792 C
185.16 296.8 423.84 320.5 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(S) 186.16 306 T
(c) 192.87 306 T
0 9 Q
(O) 198.65 302.4 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 6 Q
(2) 205.49 300.3 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
(1638) 227.26 306 T
(81.83) 263.25 306 T
2 F
(T) 290.96 306 T
0 F
(\320) 254.25 306 T
(1.483) 311.32 306 T
2 F
(T) 339.03 306 T
0 9 Q
(2) 347.08 312.75 T
0 12 Q
(0.008004) 363.58 306 T
2 F
(T) 409.29 306 T
0 9 Q
(3) 417.34 312.75 T
0 12 Q
(\320) 354.58 306 T
(+) 301.55 306 T
(=) 214.49 306 T
0 0 612 792 C
198 74.15 323.64 92 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(J) 199.07 82 T
0 9 Q
(C) 205.42 78.4 T
(a) 211.95 78.4 T
2 12 Q
(R) 234.87 82 T
(r) 242.91 82 T
0 9 Q
(C:P) 248.31 78.4 T
0 12 Q
(1) 267.37 82 T
3 F
(s) 285.37 82 T
0 F
(\320) 276.37 82 T
3 F
(\050) 262.52 82 T
(\051) 293.45 82 T
2 F
(J) 298.23 82 T
0 9 Q
(P) 304.58 78.4 T
(O) 310.11 78.4 T
(4) 317.14 78.4 T
0 12 Q
(=) 221.95 82 T
0 0 612 792 C
378 74.15 415.56 92 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(D) 379.1 82 T
(D) 400.44 82 T
2 9 Q
(c) 409.56 78.4 T
3 12 Q
(<) 390.76 82 T
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "5" 5
%%Page: "6" 6
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
 7 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(6) 303.5 36 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
(\05012\051) 520.01 712 T
(,) 269.51 684 T
(,) 415.56 684 T
(where) 72 656 T
2 F
(r) 104.32 656 T
0 9.6 Q
(C:P) 108.98 653 T
0 12 Q
( is the carbon to phosphorus Red\336eld Ratio for or) 123.39 656 T
(g) 360.83 656 T
(anic matter c) 366.77 656 T
(ycling.) 428.57 656 T
2 F
(F) 464.57 656 T
0 9.6 Q
(Ca) 471.9 653 T
0 12 Q
( is simply) 482.56 656 T
(.) 372.24 628 T
(\05013\051) 520.01 628 T
- -0.12 (An) 72 600 P
- -0.12 (y \337ux of CaCO) 86.48 600 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.09 (3) 159.8 597 P
0 12 Q
- -0.12 ( reaching the sea \337oor is assumed to dissolv) 164.6 600 P
- -0.12 (e there instantaneously and dif) 374.14 600 P
- -0.12 (fuse) 520.01 600 P
(back into the w) 72 586 T
(ater column.) 145.54 586 T
0.28 ( F) 108 572 P
0.28 (or) 117.78 572 P
2 F
0.28 (r) 131.06 572 P
0 9.6 Q
0.23 (C:P) 135.72 569 P
0 12 Q
0.28 (, the v) 148.8 572 P
0.28 (alue of 117 is adopted, which is based on the analysis of nutrient, DIC and) 178.73 572 P
0.6 (Alk observ) 72 558 P
0.6 (ations in the global ocean by Anderson and Sarmiento \0501994\051. The v) 125.3 558 P
0.6 (alues of) 460.27 558 P
2 F
0.6 (R) 502.13 558 P
0 F
0.6 ( and) 509.46 558 P
2 F
0.6 (d) 534 558 P
0 F
- -0.09 (that Y) 72 544 P
- -0.09 (amanaka and T) 100.37 544 P
- -0.09 (ajika \0501996\051 estimate as gi) 172.53 544 P
- -0.09 (ving the best \336t to the observ) 298.51 544 P
- -0.09 (ed alkalinity distrib) 437.1 544 P
- -0.09 (u-) 530 544 P
- -0.11 (tion are 0.08 and 3500 m, respecti) 72 530 P
- -0.11 (v) 234.37 530 P
- -0.11 (ely) 240.19 530 P
- -0.11 (. Y) 254.08 530 P
- -0.11 (amanaka and T) 267.44 530 P
- -0.11 (ajika \0501996\051 also ar) 339.57 530 P
- -0.11 (gue that these parame-) 432.02 530 P
1.71 (ter choices yield or) 72 516 P
1.71 (g) 168.57 516 P
1.71 (anic/inor) 174.51 516 P
1.71 (g) 216.95 516 P
1.71 (anic carbon \337ux ratios that are broadly consistent with the \337ux) 222.89 516 P
- -0.19 (ratios inferred from the analysis of Anderson and Sarmiento \0501994\051 as well as the global synthesis) 72 502 P
1.31 (of or) 72 488 P
1.31 (g) 96.09 488 P
1.31 (anic carbon and calcium carbonate sediment trap measurements by Tsunog) 102.03 488 P
1.31 (ai and Noriki) 474.05 488 P
0.61 (\0501991\051. W) 72 474 P
0.61 (e therefore adopt these v) 120.97 474 P
0.61 (alues, b) 241.05 474 P
0.61 (ut adjust) 278.08 474 P
2 F
0.61 (R) 323.3 474 P
0 F
0.61 ( to 0.07 since Y) 330.63 474 P
0.61 (amanaka and T) 407.51 474 P
0.61 (ajika \0501996\051) 481.07 474 P
(used) 72 460 T
2 F
(r) 97 460 T
0 9.6 Q
(C:P) 101.66 457 T
0 12 Q
( = 106.) 116.07 460 T
1 F
(4. Dissolv) 72 432 T
(ed inor) 120.55 432 T
(ganic carbon and alkalinity) 156.77 432 T
0 F
2.12 (DIC and Alk c) 108 404 P
2.12 (ycling are link) 184.49 404 P
2.12 (ed to phosphate and calcium c) 257.94 404 P
2.12 (ycling using the standard) 413.32 404 P
(approach:) 72 390 T
(\05014\051) 520.01 362 T
(,) 369.13 334 T
(\05015\051) 520.01 334 T
- -0.12 (where) 72 306 P
2 F
- -0.12 (r) 104.2 306 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.09 (N:P) 108.87 303 P
0 12 Q
- -0.12 ( is the nitrogen to phosphorus Red\336eld Ratio, tak) 123.8 306 P
- -0.12 (en to be 16 \050Anderson and Sarmiento,) 358.4 306 P
(1994\051.) 72 292 T
1.5 (DIC and Alk are signi\336cantly af) 108 278 P
1.5 (fected by e) 269.52 278 P
1.5 (v) 324.88 278 P
1.5 (aporation \050) 330.58 278 P
2 F
1.5 (E) 384.4 278 P
0 F
1.5 (\051 and precipitation \050) 391.73 278 P
2 F
1.5 (P) 491.22 278 P
0 F
1.5 (\051.) 498.55 278 P
0.05 (should be either predicted \050or diagnosed\051 by your model or used as a boundary condition. W) 72 264 P
0.05 (e can) 514.97 264 P
1.34 (parameterize the dilution/concentration ef) 72 250 P
1.34 (fect of) 276.66 250 P
2 F
1.34 (E) 313.32 250 P
0 F
1.34 ( and) 320.65 250 P
2 F
1.34 (P) 346.65 250 P
0 F
1.34 ( in the model as virtual DIC and Alk) 353.98 250 P
1.32 (\337ux) 72 236 P
1.32 (es \050Murnane et al., in preparation\051, similar to the virtual salt \337ux) 90.49 236 P
1.32 (es used in ph) 413.47 236 P
1.32 (ysical ocean) 479.7 236 P
(GCMs:) 72 222 T
(\05016\051) 520.01 194 T
(,) 362.8 166 T
(\05017\051) 520.01 166 T
0.74 (where the con) 72 138 P
0.74 (v) 140.3 138 P
0.74 (ention is positi) 146.12 138 P
0.74 (v) 217.97 138 P
0.74 (e upw) 223.79 138 P
0.74 (ard. Here [DIC]\373 and [Alk]\373 are globally-a) 253.4 138 P
0.74 (v) 460.48 138 P
0.74 (eraged concen-) 466.3 138 P
0.82 (trations of DIC and Alk. A) 72 124 P
0.82 (v) 203.86 124 P
0.82 (erage v) 209.68 124 P
0.82 (alues are used to insure conserv) 245.18 124 P
0.82 (ation of DIC and Alk. \050Care) 401.27 124 P
0.04 (must also be tak) 72 110 P
0.04 (en to insure that the global mean v) 149.66 110 P
0.04 (alue of) 315.27 110 P
0.04 ( is equal to zero.\051 F) 381.29 110 P
0.04 (or [DIC]\373 and) 473.95 110 P
([Alk]\373, v) 72 96 T
(alues of 1980) 113.69 96 T
3 F
(m) 181.34 96 T
0 F
(mol kg) 188.26 96 T
0 9.6 Q
(-1) 221.93 100.8 T
0 12 Q
( and 2320) 229.93 96 T
3 F
(m) 280.25 96 T
0 F
(eq kg) 287.17 96 T
0 9.6 Q
(-1) 313.49 100.8 T
0 12 Q
(, respecti) 321.49 96 T
(v) 364.51 96 T
(ely) 370.33 96 T
(, are used \050Najjar) 384.21 96 T
(, 1992\051.) 466.36 96 T
0.44 (Finally) 108 82 P
0.44 (, air) 141.23 82 P
0.44 (-sea e) 160.08 82 P
0.44 (xchange of CO) 187.99 82 P
0 9.6 Q
0.35 (2) 261.51 79 P
0 12 Q
0.44 ( in\337uences the DIC distrib) 266.31 82 P
0.44 (ution. The sea-to-air CO) 394.47 82 P
0 9.6 Q
0.35 (2) 513.09 79 P
0 12 Q
0.44 ( \337ux) 517.89 82 P
198 670.96 269.51 703.51 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(J) 199.07 684 T
0 9 Q
(C) 205.42 680.4 T
(a) 211.95 680.4 T
3 12 Q
(\266) 241.41 693.51 T
2 F
(F) 248.04 693.51 T
0 9 Q
(C) 256.24 689.91 T
2 F
(a) 262.77 689.91 T
3 12 Q
(\266) 246.69 675.96 T
2 F
(D) 253.32 675.96 T
0 F
(-) 241.41 684 T
(-) 243.4 684 T
(-) 245.4 684 T
(-) 247.4 684 T
(-) 249.4 684 T
(-) 251.4 684 T
(-) 253.39 684 T
(-) 255.39 684 T
(-) 257.39 684 T
(-) 259.39 684 T
(-) 261.39 684 T
(-) 263.27 684 T
(\320) 234.71 684 T
(=) 221.95 684 T
0 0 612 792 C
378 676.15 415.56 694 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(D) 379.1 684 T
(D) 400.44 684 T
2 9 Q
(c) 409.56 680.4 T
3 12 Q
(>) 390.76 684 T
0 0 612 792 C
236.76 620.15 372.24 643.85 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(F) 237.76 628 T
0 9 Q
(C) 245.96 624.4 T
2 F
(a) 252.49 624.4 T
2 12 Q
(R) 275.91 628 T
(r) 283.95 628 T
0 9 Q
(C:P) 289.35 624.4 T
2 12 Q
(F) 303.56 628 T
2 9 Q
(c) 311.76 624.4 T
2 12 Q
(e) 316.46 628 T
2 9 Q
(D) 330.8 636.1 T
(D) 346.36 636.1 T
2 6 Q
(c) 353.2 634 T
0 9 Q
(\320) 339.54 636.1 T
3 F
(\050) 327.09 636.1 T
(\051) 356.5 636.1 T
2 F
(d) 365.49 636.1 T
3 F
(\244) 361.74 636.1 T
0 F
(\320) 322.25 636.1 T
0 12 Q
(=) 262.99 628 T
0 0 612 792 C
247.22 354.15 364.78 372 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(J) 248.3 362 T
0 9 Q
(D) 254.64 358.4 T
(I) 261.67 358.4 T
(C) 265.2 358.4 T
2 12 Q
(r) 289.96 362 T
0 9 Q
(C:P) 295.36 358.4 T
2 12 Q
(J) 309.65 362 T
0 9 Q
(P) 316 358.4 T
(O) 321.53 358.4 T
(4) 328.56 358.4 T
2 12 Q
(J) 345.9 362 T
0 9 Q
(C) 352.25 358.4 T
(a) 358.78 358.4 T
0 12 Q
(+) 336.06 362 T
(=) 277.2 362 T
0 0 612 792 C
239.87 326.15 369.13 344 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(J) 240.94 334 T
0 9 Q
(A) 247.29 330.4 T
(l) 254.32 330.4 T
(k) 257.35 330.4 T
2 12 Q
(r) 287.11 334 T
0 F
(\320) 280.66 334 T
0 9 Q
(N:P) 292.51 330.4 T
2 12 Q
(J) 307.3 334 T
0 9 Q
(P) 313.64 330.4 T
(O) 319.18 330.4 T
(4) 326.21 330.4 T
0 12 Q
(2) 343.47 334 T
2 F
(J) 350.25 334 T
0 9 Q
(C) 356.6 330.4 T
(a) 363.13 330.4 T
0 12 Q
(+) 333.71 334 T
(=) 267.89 334 T
0 0 612 792 C
510.05 273 540 288 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(P) 511.05 278 T
(E) 530.39 278 T
0 F
(\320) 521.38 278 T
0 0 612 792 C
245.43 186.15 366.58 204 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(F) 246.43 194 T
0 9 Q
(D) 254.62 190.4 T
(I) 261.65 190.4 T
(C) 265.18 190.4 T
0 12 Q
(D) 294.79 194 T
(I) 304.16 194 T
(C) 308.86 194 T
3 F
([) 289.94 194 T
(]) 317.72 194 T
(\260) 322.42 194 T
2 F
(P) 332.78 194 T
(E) 352.12 194 T
0 F
(\320) 343.11 194 T
3 F
(\050) 327.93 194 T
(\051) 360.58 194 T
0 F
(=) 277.18 194 T
0 0 612 792 C
246.2 158.15 362.8 176 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(F) 247.2 166 T
0 9 Q
(A) 255.4 162.4 T
(l) 262.43 162.4 T
(k) 265.46 162.4 T
0 12 Q
(A) 293.61 166 T
(l) 302.99 166 T
(k) 307.03 166 T
3 F
([) 288.77 166 T
(]) 313.94 166 T
(\260) 318.64 166 T
2 F
(P) 329 166 T
(E) 348.34 166 T
0 F
(\320) 339.33 166 T
3 F
(\050) 324.15 166 T
(\051) 356.8 166 T
0 F
(=) 276 166 T
0 0 612 792 C
351.34 105 381.29 120 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(P) 352.34 110 T
(E) 371.68 110 T
0 F
(\320) 362.67 110 T
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "6" 6
%%Page: "7" 7
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
 7 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(7) 303.5 36 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
(is parameterized similar to the oxygen \337ux:) 72 712 T
(,) 378.24 684 T
(\05018\051) 520.01 684 T
- -0.19 (where) 72 656 P
2 F
- -0.19 (k) 104.13 656 P
2 9.6 Q
- -0.15 (w) 109.46 653 P
0 12 Q
- -0.19 ( here is the g) 115.86 656 P
- -0.19 (as transfer v) 176.36 656 P
- -0.19 (elocity for CO) 234.45 656 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.15 (2) 303.39 653 P
0 12 Q
- -0.19 (, [CO) 308.19 656 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.15 (2) 334.67 653 P
0 12 Q
- -0.19 (]) 339.47 656 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.15 (s) 343.46 653 P
0 12 Q
- -0.19 ( is the surf) 347.2 656 P
- -0.19 (ace ocean dissolv) 396.84 656 P
- -0.19 (ed CO) 480.26 656 P
0 9.6 Q
- -0.15 (2) 511.07 653 P
0 12 Q
- -0.19 ( con-) 515.86 656 P
0.31 (centration,) 72 642 P
3 F
0.31 (a) 126.3 642 P
0 F
0.31 ( is the CO) 133.87 642 P
0 9.6 Q
0.25 (2) 183.15 639 P
0 12 Q
0.31 ( solubility and) 187.95 642 P
2 F
0.31 (p) 260.57 642 P
0 F
0.31 (CO) 266.57 642 P
0 9.6 Q
0.25 (2) 283.24 639 P
0 12 Q
0.31 ( is the partial pressure of CO) 288.04 642 P
0 9.6 Q
0.25 (2) 427.89 639 P
0 12 Q
0.31 ( in the atmosphere.) 432.69 642 P
2 F
0.31 (k) 528.27 642 P
2 9.6 Q
0.25 (w) 533.6 639 P
0 12 Q
1.1 (is identical to that of oxygen e) 72 628 P
1.1 (xcept for the Schmidt number) 223.73 628 P
1.1 (, which is tak) 370.95 628 P
1.1 (en from W) 438.12 628 P
1.1 (anninkhof) 491.34 628 P
1.03 (\0501992\051. Ef) 72 614 P
1.03 (fects of chemical enhancement are also included, follo) 122.06 614 P
1.03 (wing W) 390.26 614 P
1.03 (anninkhof \0501992\051.) 428.67 614 P
3 F
1.03 (a) 520.39 614 P
0 F
1.03 ( is) 527.96 614 P
0.82 (computed from the formula of W) 72 600 P
0.82 (eiss \0501974\051 using the model-predicted surf) 234.78 600 P
0.82 (ace temperature and) 441.73 600 P
1.22 (salinity) 72 586 P
1.22 (.) 106.56 586 P
2 F
1.22 (p) 113.78 586 P
0 F
1.22 (CO) 119.78 586 P
0 9.6 Q
0.97 (2) 136.45 583 P
0 12 Q
1.22 ( is tak) 141.25 586 P
1.22 (en to be \336x) 172.23 586 P
1.22 (ed at its pre-industrial v) 229.37 586 P
1.22 (alue, 278) 347.93 586 P
3 F
1.22 (m) 397.35 586 P
0 F
1.22 (atm. [CO) 404.27 586 P
0 9.6 Q
0.97 (2) 450.15 583 P
0 12 Q
1.22 (]) 454.95 586 P
0 9.6 Q
0.97 (s) 458.94 583 P
0 12 Q
1.22 ( is computed in) 462.68 586 P
0.21 (your model from the simulated surf) 72 572 P
0.21 (ace DIC, Alk, temperature and salinity distrib) 243.25 572 P
0.21 (utions using the) 463.57 572 P
(Mehrbach equilibrium constants.) 72 558 T
1 F
(5. Initial conditions) 72 530 T
0 F
0.44 (Choices need to be made for initial conditions. F) 108 502 P
0.44 (or O) 345 502 P
0 9.6 Q
0.35 (2) 367.1 499 P
0 12 Q
0.44 ( and DIC, the initial v) 371.9 502 P
0.44 (alues are not) 478.47 502 P
0.3 (critical because e) 72 488 P
0.3 (xchange with the atmosphere will ultimately determine their global steady-state) 155.04 488 P
0.44 (in) 72 474 P
0.44 (v) 80.86 474 P
0.44 (entories. Alkalinity) 86.68 474 P
0.44 (, phosphate and DOP) 179 474 P
0.44 (, ho) 280.98 474 P
0.44 (we) 299.12 474 P
0.44 (v) 312.81 474 P
0.44 (er) 318.63 474 P
0.44 (, do not e) 327.47 474 P
0.44 (xchange with the atmosphere. The) 373.28 474 P
0.67 (Alk in) 72 460 P
0.67 (v) 102.53 460 P
0.67 (entory will therefore remain unchanged from the initial condition, as will the sum of the) 108.35 460 P
0.74 (DOP and phosphate in) 72 446 P
0.74 (v) 182.07 446 P
0.74 (entories. F) 187.89 446 P
0.74 (or simplicity) 239.11 446 P
0.74 (, global mean v) 300.08 446 P
0.74 (alues are chosen for initial condi-) 376 446 P
0.86 (tions: 2.1) 72 432 P
3 F
0.86 (m) 121.39 432 P
0 F
0.86 (mol kg) 128.3 432 P
0 9.6 Q
0.68 (-1) 162.83 436.8 P
0 12 Q
0.86 ( for phosphate \050Conkright) 170.82 432 P
2 F
0.86 (et al.,) 301.56 432 P
0 F
0.86 ( 1994\051, 170) 329.42 432 P
3 F
0.86 (m) 389.98 432 P
0 F
0.86 (mol kg) 396.89 432 P
0 9.6 Q
0.68 (-1) 431.42 436.8 P
0 12 Q
0.86 ( for oxygen \050Le) 439.42 432 P
0.86 (vitus) 516.66 432 P
0.45 (and Bo) 72 418 P
0.45 (yer) 106.66 418 P
0.45 (, 1994b\051, 2370) 121.5 418 P
3 F
0.45 (m) 195.84 418 P
0 F
0.45 (eq kg) 202.75 418 P
0 9.6 Q
0.36 (-1) 229.52 422.8 P
0 12 Q
0.45 ( for alkalinity \050T) 237.52 418 P
0.45 (akahashi) 317.55 418 P
2 F
0.45 (et al.,) 362.98 418 P
0 F
0.45 ( 1981\051 and 2230) 390.43 418 P
3 F
0.45 (m) 473.54 418 P
0 F
0.45 (mol kg) 480.45 418 P
0 9.6 Q
0.36 (-1) 514.57 422.8 P
0 12 Q
0.45 ( for) 522.56 418 P
0.31 (DIC, about 1% lo) 72 404 P
0.31 (wer than the present v) 157.29 404 P
0.31 (alue \050T) 264.2 404 P
0.31 (akahashi) 297.87 404 P
2 F
0.31 (et al.) 343.17 404 P
0 F
0.31 (, 1981\051. The mean semi-labile DOP) 367.48 404 P
2.03 (concentration can be estimated from the semi-labile DOC distrib) 72 390 P
2.03 (ution, which decreases from) 398.61 390 P
0.02 (about 40) 72 376 P
3 F
0.02 (m) 116.7 376 P
0 F
0.02 (mol kg) 123.61 376 P
0 9.6 Q
0.01 (-1) 157.3 380.8 P
0 12 Q
0.02 ( at the surf) 165.29 376 P
0.02 (ace to close to zero around 400 m. Assuming a linear decrease with) 216.21 376 P
0.15 (depth, the abo) 72 362 P
0.15 (v) 139.77 362 P
0.15 (e v) 145.59 362 P
0.15 (alue of) 159.77 362 P
2 F
0.15 (r) 196.05 362 P
0 9.6 Q
0.12 (C:P) 200.72 359 P
0 12 Q
0.15 ( and a mean ocean depth of 4000 m yields a mean semi-labile DOP) 215.13 362 P
(concentration of 0.02) 72 348 T
3 F
(m) 177.31 348 T
0 F
(mol kg) 184.22 348 T
0 9.6 Q
(-1) 217.9 352.8 T
0 12 Q
(.) 225.89 348 T
1 F
(Refer) 72 320 T
(ences) 100.43 320 T
0 F
1.59 (Anderson, L. A. and J. L. Sarmiento. 1994. Red\336eld ratios of remineralization determined by) 72 292 P
(nutrient data analysis.) 90 278 T
2 F
(Global Bio) 197.99 278 T
(g) 250.87 278 T
(eoc) 256.75 278 T
(hem. Cycles, 8,) 273.23 278 T
0 F
( 65-80.) 346.21 278 T
- -0.19 (Anderson, L. A. and J. L. Sarmiento. 1995. Global ocean phosphate and oxygen simulations.) 72 264 P
2 F
- -0.19 (Glo-) 518 264 P
(bal Bio) 90 250 T
(g) 124.88 250 T
(eoc) 130.76 250 T
(hem. Cycles, 9,) 147.24 250 T
0 F
(621-636.) 223.22 250 T
0.92 (Borsheim, K. Y) 72 236 P
0.92 (. and S. M. Myklestad. 1997. Dynamics of DOC in the Norwe) 148.29 236 P
0.92 (gian Sea inferred) 456.19 236 P
(from monthly pro\336les collected during 3 years at 66\373N, 2\373E.) 90 222 T
2 F
(Deep-Sea Res. I, 33,) 381.96 222 T
0 F
(593-601.) 482.93 222 T
- -0.24 (Carlson, C. A., H. W) 72 208 P
- -0.24 (. Ducklo) 170.94 208 P
- -0.24 (w and A. F) 211.73 208 P
- -0.24 (. Michaels. 1994. Annual \337ux of dissolv) 263.39 208 P
- -0.24 (ed or) 454.78 208 P
- -0.24 (g) 478.65 208 P
- -0.24 (anic carbon) 484.59 208 P
(from the euphotic zone in the northwestern Sar) 90 194 T
(g) 315.41 194 T
(asso Sea.) 321.35 194 T
2 F
(Natur) 368.34 194 T
(e) 395.9 194 T
(, 371,) 401.11 194 T
0 F
( 405-408.) 428.11 194 T
- -0.28 (Conkright, M. E., S. Le) 72 180 P
- -0.28 (vitus and T) 183.58 180 P
- -0.28 (. P) 236.13 180 P
- -0.28 (. Bo) 247.19 180 P
- -0.28 (yer) 266.79 180 P
- -0.28 (. 1994. W) 281.45 180 P
- -0.28 (orld Ocean Atlas 1994, V) 327.26 180 P
- -0.28 (olume 1: Nutrients.) 447.56 180 P
1.56 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, W) 90 166 P
1.56 (ashington,) 490.33 166 P
(D.C., 150 pp.) 90 152 T
- -0.18 (Garcia, H. E. and L. I. Gordon. 1992. Oxygen solubility in sea) 72 138 P
- -0.18 (w) 369.17 138 P
- -0.18 (ater: Better \336tting equations.) 377.71 138 P
2 F
- -0.18 (Lim-) 517.33 138 P
(nol. Oceano) 90 124 T
(gr) 148.54 124 T
(. 37,) 157.87 124 T
0 F
( 1307-1312.) 178.87 124 T
0.61 (Guo, L., C. H. Coleman Jr) 72 110 P
0.61 (. and P) 201.05 110 P
0.61 (. H. Santschi. 1994. The distrib) 233.94 110 P
0.61 (ution of colloidal and dissolv) 386.41 110 P
0.61 (ed) 528.67 110 P
(or) 90 96 T
(g) 99.78 96 T
(anic carbon in the Gulf of Me) 105.72 96 T
(xico.) 248.17 96 T
2 F
(Mar) 274.84 96 T
(. Chem., 45,) 294.17 96 T
0 F
(105-119.) 355.16 96 T
0.32 (Hansell, D. A., N. R. Bates and K. Gunderson. Mineralization of dissolv) 72 82 P
0.32 (ed or) 423.01 82 P
0.32 (g) 447.44 82 P
0.32 (anic carbon in the) 453.38 82 P
72 72 540 720 C
230.76 674.8 378.24 694 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(F) 231.76 684 T
0 9 Q
(O) 239.95 680.4 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 6 Q
(2) 246.79 678.3 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
(k) 268.55 684 T
2 9 Q
(w) 274.54 680.4 T
0 12 Q
(C) 290.95 684 T
(O) 299.66 684 T
0 9 Q
(2) 308.78 680.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 286.1 684 T
(]) 314.13 684 T
2 9 Q
(s) 318.58 679.12 T
3 12 Q
(a) 334.08 684 T
2 F
(p) 342.36 684 T
0 F
(C) 349.07 684 T
(O) 357.78 684 T
0 9 Q
(2) 366.9 680.4 T
0 12 Q
(\320) 325.08 684 T
3 F
(\050) 281.25 684 T
(\051) 372.25 684 T
0 F
(=) 255.79 684 T
72 72 540 720 C
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
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%%Page: "8" 8
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
 7 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(8) 303.5 36 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
(Sar) 90 712 T
(g) 105.78 712 T
(asso Sea.) 111.72 712 T
2 F
(Mar) 158.71 712 T
(. Chem., 51,) 178.04 712 T
0 F
( 201-212.) 236.04 712 T
0.06 (K) 72 698 P
0.06 (eeling, R. F) 80.36 698 P
0.06 (., B. B. Stephens, R. G. Najjar) 135.53 698 P
0.06 (, S. C. Done) 280.4 698 P
0.06 (y) 339.07 698 P
0.06 (, D. Archer and M. Heimann. 1998. Sea-) 344.29 698 P
0.16 (sonal v) 90 684 P
0.16 (ariations in the atmospheric O) 124.19 684 P
0 9.6 Q
0.13 (2) 269.48 681 P
0 12 Q
0.16 (/N) 274.28 684 P
0 9.6 Q
0.13 (2) 286.28 681 P
0 12 Q
0.16 ( ratio in relation to the air) 291.08 684 P
0.16 (-sea e) 414.45 684 P
0.16 (xchange of O) 442.08 684 P
0 9.6 Q
0.13 (2) 507.04 681 P
0 12 Q
0.16 (.) 511.84 684 P
2 F
0.16 (Glo-) 518 684 P
(bal Bio) 90 670 T
(g) 124.88 670 T
(eoc) 130.76 670 T
(hem. Cycles, 12,) 147.24 670 T
0 F
(141-164) 229.22 670 T
2 F
(.) 269.22 670 T
0 F
0.18 (Le) 72 656 P
0.18 (vitus, S. and T) 84.36 656 P
0.18 (. P) 153.7 656 P
0.18 (. Bo) 165.22 656 P
0.18 (yer) 185.29 656 P
0.18 (. 1994a. NO) 199.95 656 P
0.18 (AA Atlas NESDIS 2, W) 258.55 656 P
0.18 (orld Ocean Atlas 1994, V) 375.32 656 P
0.18 (olume 4:) 497.48 656 P
(T) 90 642 T
(emperature. U. S. Go) 96.49 642 T
(v) 198.29 642 T
(ernment Printing Of) 204.11 642 T
(\336ce, W) 300.47 642 T
(ashington, D. C.) 334.16 642 T
0.87 (Le) 72 628 P
0.87 (vitus S. and T) 84.36 628 P
0.87 (. P) 152.75 628 P
0.87 (. Bo) 164.96 628 P
0.87 (yer) 185.71 628 P
0.87 (. 1994b) 200.37 628 P
0.87 (.) 236.76 628 P
2 F
0.87 (NO) 243.63 628 P
0.87 (AA Atlas NESDIS 2, W) 259.64 628 P
0.87 (orld Ocean Atlas 1994, V) 372.34 628 P
0.87 (olume 2:) 496.81 628 P
(Oxyg) 90 614 T
(en.) 115.2 614 T
0 F
( U. S. Go) 129.53 614 T
(v) 174.35 614 T
(ernment Printing Of) 180.17 614 T
(\336ce, W) 276.53 614 T
(ashington, D. C.) 310.22 614 T
0.22 (Louanchi, F) 72 600 P
0.22 (. and R. G. Najjar) 129.26 600 P
0.22 (. A global monthly mean climatology of phosphate, nitrate and sili-) 214.47 600 P
(cate in the upper ocean. In preparation.) 90 586 T
0.09 (Martin, J. H., G. A. Knauer) 72 572 P
0.09 (, D. M. Karl and W) 203.61 572 P
0.09 (. W) 296.27 572 P
0.09 (. Broenk) 312.59 572 P
0.09 (o) 353.88 572 P
0.09 (w) 359.58 572 P
0.09 (. 1987. VER) 367.47 572 P
0.09 (TEX: carbon c) 426.93 572 P
0.09 (ycling in) 497.57 572 P
(the northeast P) 90 558 T
(aci\336c.) 161.15 558 T
2 F
(Deep-Sea Res., 34) 193.14 558 T
0 F
(, 267-285.) 281.11 558 T
0.87 (Najjar) 72 544 P
0.87 (, R. G. 1992. Marine Biogeochemistry) 101.51 544 P
0.87 (. In:) 289.39 544 P
2 F
0.87 (Climate System Modeling) 313.46 544 P
0 F
0.87 (, T) 438.52 544 P
0.87 (renberth, K. \050ed.\051,) 452.3 544 P
(Cambridge Uni) 90 530 T
(v) 164.03 530 T
(ersity Press, Cambridge, England, 241-280.) 169.85 530 T
- -0.29 (Najjar) 72 516 P
- -0.29 (, R. G., J. L. Sarmiento, and J. R. T) 101.51 516 P
- -0.29 (oggweiler) 267.25 516 P
- -0.29 (. 1992. Do) 314.58 516 P
- -0.29 (wnw) 364.36 516 P
- -0.29 (ard transport and f) 387.57 516 P
- -0.29 (ate of or) 474.88 516 P
- -0.29 (g) 514.07 516 P
- -0.29 (anic) 520.01 516 P
3.1 (matter in the ocean: simulations with a general circulation model.) 90 502 P
2 F
3.1 (Global Bio) 438.66 502 P
3.1 (g) 494.65 502 P
3.1 (eoc) 500.53 502 P
3.1 (hem.) 517.01 502 P
(Cycles, 6,) 90 488 T
0 F
(45-76.) 139.99 488 T
0.13 (Najjar) 72 474 P
0.13 (, R. G. and R. F) 101.51 474 P
0.13 (. K) 176.85 474 P
0.13 (eeling. 1997. Analysis of the mean annual c) 191.35 474 P
0.13 (ycle of the dissolv) 402.36 474 P
0.13 (ed oxygen) 490.22 474 P
(anomaly in the W) 90 460 T
(orld Ocean.) 174.7 460 T
2 F
(J) 233.68 460 T
(. Mar) 238.7 460 T
(. Res., 55,) 264.04 460 T
0 F
(117-151.) 314.36 460 T
1.17 (Peltzer) 72 446 P
1.17 (, E. T) 104.84 446 P
1.17 (. and N. A. Hayw) 132.95 446 P
1.17 (ard. 1996. Spatial and temporal v) 221.8 446 P
1.17 (ariation of total or) 386.98 446 P
1.17 (g) 477.25 446 P
1.17 (anic carbon) 483.19 446 P
(along 140\373W in the equatorial P) 90 432 T
(aci\336c Ocean in 1992.) 243.47 432 T
2 F
(Deep-Sea Res. II, 43,) 348.44 432 T
0 F
( 1155-1180.) 450.41 432 T
0.12 (Saltzman, J. and K. F) 72 418 P
0.12 (. W) 174.51 418 P
0.12 (ishner) 191.48 418 P
0.12 (. 1997. Zooplankton ecology in the eastern tropical P) 220.15 418 P
0.12 (aci\336c oxygen) 475.56 418 P
(minimum zone abo) 90 404 T
(v) 182.48 404 T
(e a seamount: 1. General trends.) 188.3 404 T
2 F
(Deep-Sea Res., 44,) 345.6 404 T
0 F
(907-930.) 439.57 404 T
0.53 (Sarmiento, J. L., G. Theile, R. M. K) 72 390 P
0.53 (e) 248.38 390 P
0.53 (y and W) 253.53 390 P
0.53 (. S. Moore. 1990. Oxygen and nitrate ne) 294.13 390 P
0.53 (w produc-) 490.49 390 P
0.21 (tion and remineralization in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre.) 90 376 P
2 F
0.21 (J) 401.83 376 P
0.21 (. Geophys. Res., 95,) 406.86 376 P
0 F
0.21 (18303-) 506 376 P
(18303-18315.) 90 362 T
0.13 (T) 72 348 P
0.13 (akahashi, T) 78.37 348 P
0.13 (., W) 132.93 348 P
0.13 (. S. Broeck) 152.29 348 P
0.13 (er) 205.75 348 P
0.13 (, and A. E. Bainbridge. 1981. Supplement to the alkalinity and total) 214.6 348 P
0.34 (carbon dioxide in the w) 90 334 P
0.34 (orld oceans. In: Bolin, B \050Ed.\051, Carbon Cycle Modelling, SCOPE 16,) 204.57 334 P
(159-200, John W) 90 320 T
(ile) 172.51 320 T
(y & Sons, Chichester) 184.33 320 T
(.) 285.67 320 T
- -0.09 (Thomas, C., G. Cauwet and J.-F) 72 306 P
- -0.09 (. Minster) 225.27 306 P
- -0.09 (. 1995. Dissolv) 267.85 306 P
- -0.09 (ed or) 340.17 306 P
- -0.09 (g) 364.2 306 P
- -0.09 (anic carbon in the equatorial Atlan-) 370.14 306 P
(tic Ocean.) 90 292 T
2 F
(Mar) 141.65 292 T
(. Chem, 49,) 160.98 292 T
0 F
( 155-169.) 215.98 292 T
0.01 (Tsunog) 72 278 P
0.01 (ai, S. and S. Noriki. 1991. P) 107.94 278 P
0.01 (articulate \337ux) 242.14 278 P
0.01 (es of carbonate and or) 308.29 278 P
0.01 (g) 414.07 278 P
0.01 (anic carbon in the ocean:) 420.01 278 P
1.26 (Is the marine biological acti) 90 264 P
1.26 (vity w) 228.7 264 P
1.26 (orking as a sink of the atmospheric carbon?) 260.17 264 P
2 F
1.26 (T) 482.18 264 P
1.26 (ellus, 43B,) 487.74 264 P
0 F
(256-266.) 90 250 T
- -0.08 (Y) 72 236 P
- -0.08 (amanaka, Y) 79.46 236 P
- -0.08 (. and E. T) 135.15 236 P
- -0.08 (ajika. 1996. The role of the v) 180.96 236 P
- -0.08 (ertical \337ux) 319.63 236 P
- -0.08 (es of particulate or) 371.03 236 P
- -0.08 (g) 460.23 236 P
- -0.08 (anic matter and) 466.17 236 P
0.16 (calcite in the oceanic carbon c) 90 222 P
0.16 (ycle: studies using an ocean biogeochemical circulation model.) 235.58 222 P
2 F
(Global Bio) 90 208 T
(g) 142.88 208 T
(eoc) 148.76 208 T
(hem. Cycles, 10,) 165.24 208 T
0 F
( 361-382.) 244.22 208 T
- -0.15 (Y) 72 194 P
- -0.15 (amanaka, Y) 79.46 194 P
- -0.15 (. and E. T) 135.08 194 P
- -0.15 (ajika. 1997. Role of dissolv) 180.66 194 P
- -0.15 (ed or) 311.89 194 P
- -0.15 (g) 335.85 194 P
- -0.15 (anic matter in the marine biogeochemical) 341.79 194 P
0.2 (c) 90 180 P
0.2 (ycle: studies using an ocean biogeochemical general circulation model.) 95.15 180 P
2 F
0.2 (Global Bio) 441.57 180 P
0.2 (g) 494.65 180 P
0.2 (eoc) 500.53 180 P
0.2 (hem.) 517.01 180 P
(Cycles, 11,) 90 166 T
0 F
( 599-612.) 142.99 166 T
- -0.26 (W) 72 152 P
- -0.26 (alsh, J. 1978. A Data Set On Northern Hemisphere Sea Ice Extent, 1953-76. Glaciological Data,) 82.37 152 P
(W) 90 138 T
(orld Data Center for Glaciology \050Sno) 100.37 138 T
(w and Ice\051, Report GD-2, 49-51.) 279.04 138 T
- -0.22 (W) 72 124 P
- -0.22 (anninkhof, R. 1992. Relationship between wind speed and g) 82.37 124 P
- -0.22 (as e) 369.55 124 P
- -0.22 (xchange o) 387.47 124 P
- -0.22 (v) 436.06 124 P
- -0.22 (er the ocean.) 441.88 124 P
2 F
- -0.22 (J) 505.2 124 P
- -0.22 (. Geo-) 510.23 124 P
(phys. Res. 97,) 90 110 T
0 F
(7373-7382.) 159.32 110 T
0.4 (W) 72 96 P
0.4 (eiss, R. F) 82.37 96 P
0.4 (. 1974. Carbon dioxide in w) 126.89 96 P
0.4 (ater and sea) 263.12 96 P
0.4 (w) 320.38 96 P
0.4 (ater: The solubility of a non-ideal g) 328.93 96 P
0.4 (as.) 501.27 96 P
2 F
0.4 (Mar) 517.67 96 P
0.4 (.) 537 96 P
(Chem., 2,) 90 82 T
0 F
( 203-215.) 136 82 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
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0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(9) 303.5 36 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
0.38 (Zw) 72 712 P
0.38 (ally) 87.88 712 P
0.38 (, H. J., J. Comiso, C. P) 105.1 712 P
0.38 (arkinson, W) 216.21 712 P
0.38 (. Campbell, F) 274.14 712 P
0.38 (. Carse) 339.27 712 P
0.38 (y and P) 372.8 712 P
0.38 (. Gloerson. 1983. Antarctic) 408.22 712 P
(Sea Ice, 1973-1976: Satellite P) 90 698 T
(assi) 238.14 698 T
(v) 255.84 698 T
(e Micro) 261.66 698 T
(w) 299.02 698 T
(a) 307.56 698 T
(v) 312.65 698 T
(e Observ) 318.47 698 T
(ations, N) 361.15 698 T
(ASA, 206 pp.) 404.06 698 T
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