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CFC model (fwd)



Dear OCMIP-2 participants,

The discussion concerning OCMIP-2 gas exchange has been re-opened by Ray
Najjar.  Since all groups plan to follow the same protocol, I am
forwarding these messages to the general OCMIP mailing list
(ocmip-all@lsce.saclay.cea.fr).  I ask that further discussion on these
issues be addressed there.  All members are encouraged to participate. 

Many thanks,  Jim

- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
James Orr                  ;  Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement
mailto: orr@cea.fr         ;  Unite Mixte de Recherche CEA-CNRS
Tel:  (33) (0)1 69 08 77 23;  Address: LSCE, CEA Saclay
Fax:  (33) (0)1 69 08 77 16;           Bat. 709 - Orme
Home: (33) (0)1 30 41 31 72;           F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex - FRANCE 

- ---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 11 May 1998 17:11:45 -0400 (EDT)
From: Ray Najjar <najjar@essc.psu.edu>
To: usocmip@essc.psu.edu
Subject: CFC model

- ----------
X-Sun-Data-Type: text
X-Sun-Data-Description: text
X-Sun-Data-Name: text
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US OCMIP participants:

Attached as a postscript file you will find a proposed protocol for CFC
simulations in OCMIP.  I have not done CFC simulations before and I have not
exhausted the literature for potential ways to do this, but it seems pretty
straightforward to me.  I therefore put something together in a short amount
of time for your evaluation.  Please look this over as soon as you can, but
no later than the end of this week, and get back to me with your comments.

Thanks,

Ray
- ----------
X-Sun-Data-Type: postscript-file
X-Sun-Data-Description: postscript-file
X-Sun-Data-Name: cfc.model.ps
X-Sun-Charset: us-ascii
X-Sun-Content-Lines: 2787

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	FMUseHighFrequencyScreens { MHighAngles CMHighFreqs } {MLowAngles CMLowFreqs} ifelse
		screenIndex dup 3 1 roll get 3 1 roll get /FMSpotFunction load
} bind def
/getYellowScreen {
	FMUseHighFrequencyScreens { YHighTDot YHighFreqs} { YLowTDot YLowFreqs } ifelse
		screenIndex dup 3 1 roll get 3 1 roll get { 3 div
			{2 { 1 add 2 div 3 mul dup floor sub 2 mul 1 sub exch} repeat
			FMSpotFunction } } {/FMSpotFunction load } ifelse
			0.0 exch
} bind def
/getBlackScreen  {
	FMUseHighFrequencyScreens { KHighFreqs } { KLowFreqs } ifelse
		screenIndex get 45.0 /FMSpotFunction load 
} bind def
/getSpotScreen {
	getBlackScreen
} bind def
/getCompositeScreen {
	getBlackScreen
} bind def
/FMSetScreen 
	fMLevel1 { /setscreen load 
	}{ {
		8 dict begin
		/HalftoneType 1 def
		/SpotFunction exch def
		/Angle exch def
		/Frequency exch def
		/AccurateScreens FMUseAcccurateScreens def
		currentdict end sethalftone
	} bind } ifelse
def
/setDefaultScreen {
	FMPColor {
		orgrxfer cvx orggxfer cvx orgbxfer cvx orgxfer cvx setcolortransfer
	}
	{
		orgxfer cvx settransfer
	} ifelse
	orgfreq organgle orgproc cvx setscreen
} bind def
/setCurrentScreen {
	FrameSepIs FMnone eq {
		FMUseDefaultNoSeparationScreen {
			setDefaultScreen
		} {
			getCompositeScreen FMSetScreen
		} ifelse
	} {
		FrameSepIs FMcustom eq {
			FMUseDefaultSpotSeparationScreen {
				setDefaultScreen
			} {
				getSpotScreen FMSetScreen
			} ifelse
		} {
			FMUseDefaultProcessSeparationScreen {
				setDefaultScreen
			} {
				FrameSepIs FMcyan eq {
					getCyanScreen FMSetScreen
				} {
					FrameSepIs FMmagenta eq {
						getMagentaScreen FMSetScreen
					} {
						FrameSepIs FMyellow eq {
							getYellowScreen FMSetScreen
						} {
							getBlackScreen FMSetScreen
						} ifelse
					} ifelse
				} ifelse
			} ifelse
		} ifelse
	} ifelse 
} bind def
end
	
/FMDOCUMENT { 
	array /FMfonts exch def 
	/#copies exch def
	FrameDict begin
	0 ne /manualfeed exch def
	/paperheight exch def
	/paperwidth exch def
	0 ne /fMNegative exch def 
	0 ne /edown exch def 
	/yscale exch def
	/xscale exch def
	fMLevel1 {
		manualfeed {setmanualfeed} if
		/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def 
		/FMoptop count def 
		setpapername 
		manualfeed {true} {papersize} ifelse 
		{manualpapersize} {false} ifelse 
		{desperatepapersize} {false} ifelse 
		{papersizefailure} if
		count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for
		countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for 
		}
		{2 dict
		 dup /PageSize [paperwidth paperheight] put
		 manualfeed {dup /ManualFeed manualfeed put} if
		 {setpagedevice} stopped {papersizefailure} if
		}
	ifelse 
	
	FMPColor {
		currentcolorscreen
			cvlit /orgproc exch def
				  /organgle exch def 
				  /orgfreq exch def
			cvlit /orgbproc exch def
				  /orgbangle exch def 
				  /orgbfreq exch def
			cvlit /orggproc exch def
				  /orggangle exch def 
				  /orggfreq exch def
			cvlit /orgrproc exch def
				  /orgrangle exch def 
				  /orgrfreq exch def
			currentcolortransfer 
			fMNegative {
				1 1 4 { 
					pop { 1 exch sub } fmConcatProcs 4 1 roll
				} for
				4 copy
				setcolortransfer
			} if
			cvlit /orgxfer exch def
			cvlit /orgbxfer exch def
			cvlit /orggxfer exch def
			cvlit /orgrxfer exch def
	} {
		currentscreen 
			cvlit /orgproc exch def
				  /organgle exch def 
				  /orgfreq exch def
				  
		currenttransfer 
		fMNegative {
			{ 1 exch sub } fmConcatProcs
			dup settransfer
		} if 
		cvlit /orgxfer exch def
	} ifelse
	end 
} def 
/FMBEGINPAGE { 
	FrameDict begin 
	/pagesave save def
	3.86 setmiterlimit
	/landscape exch 0 ne def
	landscape { 
		90 rotate 0 exch dup /pwid exch def neg translate pop 
	}{
		pop /pwid exch def
	} ifelse
	edown { [-1 0 0 1 pwid 0] concat } if
	0 0 moveto paperwidth 0 lineto paperwidth paperheight lineto 
	0 paperheight lineto 0 0 lineto 1 setgray fill
	xscale yscale scale
	/orgmatrix matrix def
	gsave 
} def 
/FMENDPAGE {
	grestore 
	pagesave restore
	end 
	showpage
	} def 
/FMFONTDEFINE { 
	FrameDict begin
	findfont 
	ReEncode 
	1 index exch 
	definefont 
	FMfonts 3 1 roll 
	put
	end 
	} def 
/FMFILLS {
	FrameDict begin dup
	array /fillvals exch def
	dict /patCache exch def
	end 
	} def 
/FMFILL {
	FrameDict begin
	 fillvals 3 1 roll put
	end 
	} def 
/FMNORMALIZEGRAPHICS { 
	newpath
	1 setlinewidth
	0 setlinecap
	0 0 0 sethsbcolor
	0 setgray 
	} bind def
/FMBEGINEPSF { 
	end 
	/FMEPSF save def 
	/showpage {} def 
% See Adobe's "PostScript Language Reference Manual, 2nd Edition", page 714.
% "...the following operators MUST NOT be used in an EPS file:" (emphasis ours)
	/banddevice {(banddevice) FMBADEPSF} def
	/clear {(clear) FMBADEPSF} def
	/cleardictstack {(cleardictstack) FMBADEPSF} def 
	/copypage {(copypage) FMBADEPSF} def
	/erasepage {(erasepage) FMBADEPSF} def
	/exitserver {(exitserver) FMBADEPSF} def
	/framedevice {(framedevice) FMBADEPSF} def
	/grestoreall {(grestoreall) FMBADEPSF} def
	/initclip {(initclip) FMBADEPSF} def
	/initgraphics {(initgraphics) FMBADEPSF} def
	/quit {(quit) FMBADEPSF} def
	/renderbands {(renderbands) FMBADEPSF} def
	/setglobal {(setglobal) FMBADEPSF} def
	/setpagedevice {(setpagedevice) FMBADEPSF} def
	/setshared {(setshared) FMBADEPSF} def
	/startjob {(startjob) FMBADEPSF} def
	/lettertray {(lettertray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/letter {(letter) FMBADEPSF} def
	/lettersmall {(lettersmall) FMBADEPSF} def
	/11x17tray {(11x17tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/11x17 {(11x17) FMBADEPSF} def
	/ledgertray {(ledgertray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/ledger {(ledger) FMBADEPSF} def
	/legaltray {(legaltray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/legal {(legal) FMBADEPSF} def
	/statementtray {(statementtray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/statement {(statement) FMBADEPSF} def
	/executivetray {(executivetray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/executive {(executive) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a3tray {(a3tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a3 {(a3) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a4tray {(a4tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a4 {(a4) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a4small {(a4small) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b4tray {(b4tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b4 {(b4) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b5tray {(b5tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b5 {(b5) FMBADEPSF} def
	FMNORMALIZEGRAPHICS 
	[/fy /fx /fh /fw /ury /urx /lly /llx] {exch def} forall 
	fx fw 2 div add fy fh 2 div add  translate
	rotate
	fw 2 div neg fh 2 div neg translate
	fw urx llx sub div fh ury lly sub div scale 
	llx neg lly neg translate 
	/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def 
	/FMoptop count def 
	} bind def
/FMENDEPSF {
	count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for 
	countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for 
	FMEPSF restore
	FrameDict begin 
	} bind def
FrameDict begin 
/setmanualfeed {
%%BeginFeature *ManualFeed True
	 statusdict /manualfeed true put
%%EndFeature
	} bind def
/max {2 copy lt {exch} if pop} bind def
/min {2 copy gt {exch} if pop} bind def
/inch {72 mul} def
/pagedimen { 
	paperheight sub abs 16 lt exch 
	paperwidth sub abs 16 lt and
	{/papername exch def} {pop} ifelse
	} bind def
/setpapername { 
	/papersizedict 14 dict def 
	papersizedict begin
	/papername /unknown def 
		/Letter 8.5 inch 11.0 inch pagedimen
		/LetterSmall 7.68 inch 10.16 inch pagedimen
		/Tabloid 11.0 inch 17.0 inch pagedimen
		/Ledger 17.0 inch 11.0 inch pagedimen
		/Legal 8.5 inch 14.0 inch pagedimen
		/Statement 5.5 inch 8.5 inch pagedimen
		/Executive 7.5 inch 10.0 inch pagedimen
		/A3 11.69 inch 16.5 inch pagedimen
		/A4 8.26 inch 11.69 inch pagedimen
		/A4Small 7.47 inch 10.85 inch pagedimen
		/B4 10.125 inch 14.33 inch pagedimen
		/B5 7.16 inch 10.125 inch pagedimen
	end
	} bind def
/papersize {
	papersizedict begin
		/Letter {lettertray letter} def
		/LetterSmall {lettertray lettersmall} def
		/Tabloid {11x17tray 11x17} def
		/Ledger {ledgertray ledger} def
		/Legal {legaltray legal} def
		/Statement {statementtray statement} def
		/Executive {executivetray executive} def
		/A3 {a3tray a3} def
		/A4 {a4tray a4} def
		/A4Small {a4tray a4small} def
		/B4 {b4tray b4} def
		/B5 {b5tray b5} def
		/unknown {unknown} def
	papersizedict dup papername known {papername} {/unknown} ifelse get
	end
	statusdict begin stopped end 
	} bind def
/manualpapersize {
	papersizedict begin
		/Letter {letter} def
		/LetterSmall {lettersmall} def
		/Tabloid {11x17} def
		/Ledger {ledger} def
		/Legal {legal} def
		/Statement {statement} def
		/Executive {executive} def
		/A3 {a3} def
		/A4 {a4} def
		/A4Small {a4small} def
		/B4 {b4} def
		/B5 {b5} def
		/unknown {unknown} def
	papersizedict dup papername known {papername} {/unknown} ifelse get
	end
	stopped 
	} bind def
/desperatepapersize {
	statusdict /setpageparams known
		{
		paperwidth paperheight 0 1 
		statusdict begin
		{setpageparams} stopped 
		end
		} {true} ifelse 
	} bind def
/papersizefailure {
	FMAllowPaperSizeMismatch not
		{
(The requested paper size is not available in any currently-installed tray)
(Edit the PS file to "FMAllowPaperSizeMismatch true" to use default tray)
		 FMFAILURE } if
	} def
/DiacriticEncoding [
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /space /exclam /quotedbl
/numbersign /dollar /percent /ampersand /quotesingle /parenleft
/parenright /asterisk /plus /comma /hyphen /period /slash /zero /one
/two /three /four /five /six /seven /eight /nine /colon /semicolon
/less /equal /greater /question /at /A /B /C /D /E /F /G /H /I /J /K
/L /M /N /O /P /Q /R /S /T /U /V /W /X /Y /Z /bracketleft /backslash
/bracketright /asciicircum /underscore /grave /a /b /c /d /e /f /g /h
/i /j /k /l /m /n /o /p /q /r /s /t /u /v /w /x /y /z /braceleft /bar
/braceright /asciitilde /.notdef /Adieresis /Aring /Ccedilla /Eacute
/Ntilde /Odieresis /Udieresis /aacute /agrave /acircumflex /adieresis
/atilde /aring /ccedilla /eacute /egrave /ecircumflex /edieresis
/iacute /igrave /icircumflex /idieresis /ntilde /oacute /ograve
/ocircumflex /odieresis /otilde /uacute /ugrave /ucircumflex
/udieresis /dagger /.notdef /cent /sterling /section /bullet
/paragraph /germandbls /registered /copyright /trademark /acute
/dieresis /.notdef /AE /Oslash /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/yen /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/ordfeminine /ordmasculine /.notdef /ae /oslash /questiondown
/exclamdown /logicalnot /.notdef /florin /.notdef /.notdef
/guillemotleft /guillemotright /ellipsis /.notdef /Agrave /Atilde
/Otilde /OE /oe /endash /emdash /quotedblleft /quotedblright
/quoteleft /quoteright /.notdef /.notdef /ydieresis /Ydieresis
/fraction /currency /guilsinglleft /guilsinglright /fi /fl /daggerdbl
/periodcentered /quotesinglbase /quotedblbase /perthousand
/Acircumflex /Ecircumflex /Aacute /Edieresis /Egrave /Iacute
/Icircumflex /Idieresis /Igrave /Oacute /Ocircumflex /.notdef /Ograve
/Uacute /Ucircumflex /Ugrave /dotlessi /circumflex /tilde /macron
/breve /dotaccent /ring /cedilla /hungarumlaut /ogonek /caron
] def
/ReEncode { 
	dup 
	length 
	dict begin 
	{
	1 index /FID ne 
		{def} 
		{pop pop} ifelse 
	} forall 
	0 eq {/Encoding DiacriticEncoding def} if 
	currentdict 
	end 
	} bind def
FMPColor 
	
	{
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLOR { 
		BITMAPCOLOR} def
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLORc { 
		BITMAPCOLORc} def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLOR { 
		BITMAPTRUECOLOR } def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLORc { 
		BITMAPTRUECOLORc } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYK { 
		BITMAPCMYK } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYKc { 
		BITMAPCMYKc } def
	}
	
	{
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLOR { 
		BITMAPGRAY} def
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLORc { 
		BITMAPGRAYc} def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLOR { 
		BITMAPTRUEGRAY } def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLORc { 
		BITMAPTRUEGRAYc } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYK { 
		BITMAPCMYKGRAY } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYKc { 
		BITMAPCMYKGRAYc } def
	}
ifelse
/K { 
	FMPrintAllColorsAsBlack {
		dup 1 eq 2 index 1 eq and 3 index 1 eq and not
			{7 {pop} repeat 0 0 0 1 0 0 0} if
	} if 
	FrameCurColors astore 
	pop combineColor
} bind def
/graymode true def
fMLevel1 {
	/fmGetFlip {
		fMatrix2 exch get mul 0 lt { -1 } { 1 } ifelse
	} FmBD
} if
/setPatternMode {
	fMLevel1 {
		2 index patScreenDict exch known {
			pop pop
			patScreenDict exch get aload pop 
			freq 								
			mul									
			5 2 roll							
			fMatrix2 currentmatrix 1 get 0 ne {
				3 -1 roll 90 add 3 1 roll 		
				sflipx 1 fmGetFlip sflipy 2 fmGetFlip neg mul
			} {  								
				sflipx 0 fmGetFlip sflipy 3 fmGetFlip mul 
			} ifelse
			0 lt {exch pop} {pop} ifelse 		
			fMNegative { 
				{neg} fmConcatProcs 			
			} if
			bind
			
			
			
			systemdict /setscreen get exec		
			/FrameCurGray exch def
		} {
			/bwidth  exch def
			/bpside  exch def
			/bstring exch def
			/onbits 0 def  /offbits 0 def
			freq sangle landscape {90 add} if 
				{/ypoint exch def
				 /xpoint exch def
				 /xindex xpoint 1 add 2 div bpside mul cvi def
				 /yindex ypoint 1 add 2 div bpside mul cvi def
				 bstring yindex bwidth mul xindex 8 idiv add get
				 1 7 xindex 8 mod sub bitshift and 0 ne fMNegative {not} if
				 {/onbits  onbits  1 add def 1}
				 {/offbits offbits 1 add def 0}
				 ifelse
				}
				setscreen
			offbits offbits onbits add div fMNegative {1.0 exch sub} if
			/FrameCurGray exch def
		} ifelse
	} { 
		pop pop
		dup patCache exch known {
			patCache exch get
		} { 
			dup
			patDict /bstring 3 -1 roll put
			patDict 
			9 PatFreq screenIndex get div dup matrix scale
			makepattern
			dup 
			patCache 4 -1 roll 3 -1 roll put
		} ifelse
		/FrameCurGray 0 def
		/FrameCurPat exch def
	} ifelse
	/graymode false def
	combineColor
} bind def
/setGrayScaleMode {
	graymode not {
		/graymode true def
		fMLevel1 {
			setCurrentScreen
		} if
	} if
	/FrameCurGray exch def
	combineColor
} bind def
/normalize {
	transform round exch round exch itransform
	} bind def
/dnormalize {
	dtransform round exch round exch idtransform
	} bind def
/lnormalize { 
	0 dtransform exch cvi 2 idiv 2 mul 1 add exch idtransform pop
	} bind def
/H { 
	lnormalize setlinewidth
	} bind def
/Z {
	setlinecap
	} bind def
	
/PFill {
	graymode fMLevel1 or not {
		gsave 1 setgray eofill grestore
	} if
} bind def
/PStroke {
	graymode fMLevel1 or not {
		gsave 1 setgray stroke grestore
	} if
	stroke
} bind def
/X { 
	fillvals exch get
	dup type /stringtype eq
	{8 1 setPatternMode} 
	{setGrayScaleMode}
	ifelse
	} bind def
/V { 
	PFill gsave eofill grestore
	} bind def
/Vclip {
	clip
	} bind def
/Vstrk {
	currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
	} bind def
/N { 
	PStroke
	} bind def
/Nclip {
	strokepath clip newpath
	} bind def
/Nstrk {
	currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
	} bind def
/M {newpath moveto} bind def
/E {lineto} bind def
/D {curveto} bind def
/O {closepath} bind def
/L { 
 	/n exch def
	newpath
	normalize
	moveto 
	2 1 n {pop normalize lineto} for
	} bind def
/Y { 
	L 
	closepath
	} bind def
/R { 
	/y2 exch def
	/x2 exch def
	/y1 exch def
	/x1 exch def
	x1 y1
	x2 y1
	x2 y2
	x1 y2
	4 Y 
	} bind def
/rarc 
	{rad 
	 arcto
	} bind def
/RR { 
	/rad exch def
	normalize
	/y2 exch def
	/x2 exch def
	normalize
	/y1 exch def
	/x1 exch def
	mark
	newpath
	{
	x1 y1 rad add moveto
	x1 y2 x2 y2 rarc
	x2 y2 x2 y1 rarc
	x2 y1 x1 y1 rarc
	x1 y1 x1 y2 rarc
	closepath
	} stopped {x1 y1 x2 y2 R} if 
	cleartomark
	} bind def
/RRR { 
	/rad exch def
	normalize /y4 exch def /x4 exch def
	normalize /y3 exch def /x3 exch def
	normalize /y2 exch def /x2 exch def
	normalize /y1 exch def /x1 exch def
	newpath
	normalize moveto 
	mark
	{
	x2 y2 x3 y3 rarc
	x3 y3 x4 y4 rarc
	x4 y4 x1 y1 rarc
	x1 y1 x2 y2 rarc
	closepath
	} stopped
	 {x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4 newpath moveto lineto lineto lineto closepath} if
	cleartomark
	} bind def
/C { 
	grestore
	gsave
	R 
	clip
	setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/CP { 
	grestore
	gsave
	Y 
	clip
	setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/F { 
	FMfonts exch get
	FMpointsize scalefont
	setfont
	} bind def
/Q { 
	/FMpointsize exch def
	F 
	} bind def
/T { 
	moveto show
	} bind def
/RF { 
	rotate
	0 ne {-1 1 scale} if
	} bind def
/TF { 
	gsave
	moveto 
	RF
	show
	grestore
	} bind def
/P { 
	moveto
	0 32 3 2 roll widthshow
	} bind def
/PF { 
	gsave
	moveto 
	RF
	0 32 3 2 roll widthshow
	grestore
	} bind def
/S { 
	moveto
	0 exch ashow
	} bind def
/SF { 
	gsave
	moveto
	RF
	0 exch ashow
	grestore
	} bind def
/B { 
	moveto
	0 32 4 2 roll 0 exch awidthshow
	} bind def
/BF { 
	gsave
	moveto
	RF
	0 32 4 2 roll 0 exch awidthshow
	grestore
	} bind def
/G { 
	gsave
	newpath
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath 
	PFill fill
	grestore
	} bind def
/Gstrk {
	savematrix
    newpath
    2 index 2 div add exch 3 index 2 div sub exch 
    normalize 2 index 2 div sub exch 3 index 2 div add exch 
    translate
    scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    restorematrix
    currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
    } bind def
/Gclip { 
	newpath
	savematrix
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath 
	clip newpath
	restorematrix
	} bind def
/GG { 
	gsave
	newpath
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	rotate 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath
	PFill
	fill
	grestore
	} bind def
/GGclip { 
	savematrix
	newpath
    normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
    rotate 
    dnormalize scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    closepath
	clip newpath
	restorematrix
	} bind def
/GGstrk { 
	savematrix
    newpath
    normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
    rotate 
    dnormalize scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    closepath 
	restorematrix
    currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
	} bind def
/A { 
	gsave
	savematrix
	newpath
	2 index 2 div add exch 3 index 2 div sub exch 
	normalize 2 index 2 div sub exch 3 index 2 div add exch 
	translate 
	scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	restorematrix
	PStroke
	grestore
	} bind def
/Aclip {
	newpath
	savematrix
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath 
	strokepath clip newpath
	restorematrix
} bind def
/Astrk {
	Gstrk
} bind def
/AA { 
	gsave
	savematrix
	newpath
	
	3 index 2 div add exch 4 index 2 div sub exch 
	
	normalize 3 index 2 div sub exch 4 index 2 div add exch
	translate 
	rotate 
	scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	restorematrix
	PStroke
	grestore
	} bind def
/AAclip {
	savematrix
	newpath
    normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
    rotate 
    dnormalize scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    closepath
	strokepath clip newpath
	restorematrix
} bind def
/AAstrk {
	GGstrk
} bind def
/BEGINPRINTCODE { 
	/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def 
	/FMoptop count 7 sub def 
	/FMsaveobject save def
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%%EndProlog
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(Description of OCMIP model of CFC 11 and 12) 184.01 712 T
(May 11, 1998) 271.84 698 T
(Raymond Najjar) 262.51 684 T
(1. Intr) 72 656 T
(oduction) 104.45 656 T
1 F
0.21 (Chloro\337uorocarbon distrib) 108 628 P
0.21 (utions ha) 236.3 628 P
0.21 (v) 279.94 628 P
0.21 (e yielded considerable insight into ocean circulation,) 285.76 628 P
1.14 (particularly those aspects rele) 72 614 P
1.14 (v) 217.42 614 P
1.14 (ant to the uptak) 223.12 614 P
1.14 (e of anthropogenic carbon dioxide by the ocean.) 300.74 614 P
- -0.02 (F) 72 600 P
- -0.02 (or this reason, and others, simulations of CFC-11 and CFC-12, tw) 78.49 600 P
- -0.02 (o of the more commonly mea-) 394.47 600 P
0.81 (sured chloro\337uorocarbons, will be conducted as part of OCMIP-2. Simulation of CFCs is f) 72 586 P
0.81 (airly) 518 586 P
1.23 (straightforw) 72 572 P
1.23 (ard since CFCs in) 130.54 572 P
1.23 (v) 219.4 572 P
1.23 (ade the ocean only from the atmosphere, ha) 225.1 572 P
1.23 (v) 442.71 572 P
1.23 (e no natural c) 448.53 572 P
1.23 (ycle,) 517.01 572 P
0.16 (and are conserv) 72 558 P
0.16 (ati) 147.31 558 P
0.16 (v) 159.01 558 P
0.16 (e once in the ocean. In addition to the ocean circulation \336eld, only the follo) 164.83 558 P
0.16 (w-) 527.34 558 P
0.79 (ing need to be speci\336ed: the time history of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the atmosphere, the air) 72 544 P
0.79 (-sea) 520.68 544 P
- -0.01 (transfer v) 72 530 P
- -0.01 (elocity for CFC-11 and CFC-12 and the solubility of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in sea) 117.46 530 P
- -0.01 (w) 504.14 530 P
- -0.01 (ater) 512.69 530 P
- -0.01 (. I) 530.02 530 P
- -0.25 (suggest that the dif) 72 516 P
- -0.25 (ferent OCMIP participants use identical speci\336cations for the atmospheric time) 161.95 516 P
0.44 (history and CFC transfer v) 72 502 P
0.44 (elocities, b) 201.59 502 P
0.44 (ut that the CFC solubilities are computed using model-pre-) 253.79 502 P
(dicted temperatures and salinities, which will v) 72 488 T
(ary some) 298.01 488 T
(what from group to group.) 341.36 488 T
0 F
(2. Atmospheric time history of CFC-11 and CFC-12) 72 460 T
1 F
1.39 (At John Bullister\325) 108 432 P
1.39 (s recommendation, I suggest that the CFC atmospheric time histories) 196.13 432 P
1.38 (compiled by Stephen W) 72 418 P
1.38 (alk) 190.84 418 P
1.38 (er) 205.39 418 P
1.38 (, Peter Salameh and Ray W) 214.23 418 P
1.38 (eiss \0501996, unpublished document\051 be) 352.16 418 P
0.18 (used by OCMIP) 72 404 P
0.18 (. These will lik) 149.03 404 P
0.18 (ely be the same histories used in W) 221.46 404 P
0.18 (OCE CFC synthesis. Since the) 392.26 404 P
0.15 (W) 72 390 P
0.15 (alk) 82.37 390 P
0.15 (er) 96.91 390 P
2 F
0.15 (et al.) 109.39 390 P
1 F
0.15 ( document is unpublished I will brie\337y describe ho) 133.54 390 P
0.15 (w the reconstructions were made.) 378.44 390 P
0.68 (T) 72 376 P
0.68 (ime histories from 1931 to 1995 were constructed for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres) 78.91 376 P
0.14 (by using a combination of direct measurements after 1978, estimates of CFC release to the atmo-) 72 362 P
- -0.02 (sphere from 1931 to 1979, and a simple model of atmospheric CFC lifetime and transport. North-) 72 348 P
2.4 (ern Hemisphere v) 72 334 P
2.4 (alues are for an a) 161.8 334 P
2.4 (v) 253.11 334 P
2.4 (erage of Mace Head, Ireland \05053\373N\051 and Cape Meares,) 258.93 334 P
- -0.11 (Ore) 72 320 P
- -0.11 (gon \05045\373N\051 before June 1989 and only Mace Head thereafter) 89.81 320 P
- -0.11 (. Southern Hemisphere v) 379.1 320 P
- -0.11 (alues are) 497.79 320 P
(for Cape Grim, T) 72 306 T
(asmania \05041\373S\051.) 154.36 306 T
0.5 (There are signi\336cant dif) 108 292 P
0.5 (ferences between the hemispheres, so a linear \336t through the tw) 224.18 292 P
0.5 (o) 534 292 P
(hemispheric v) 72 278 T
(alues will be used to compute concentrations as a function of latitude:) 139.36 278 T
(,) 388.95 250 T
(\0501\051) 526.01 250 T
1.04 (where) 72 222 P
2 F
1.04 (C) 105.36 222 P
2 9.6 Q
0.84 (atm) 113.36 219 P
1 12 Q
1.04 ( is the atmospheric CFC concentration,) 127.76 222 P
3 F
1.04 (f) 324.35 222 P
1 F
1.04 ( is the latitude, and the subscripts) 330.61 222 P
2 F
1.04 (N) 500.58 222 P
1 F
1.04 ( and) 508.58 222 P
2 F
1.04 (S) 534 222 P
1 F
1.62 (refer to the Northern and Southern Hemisphere v) 72 208 P
1.62 (alues, respecti) 318.63 208 P
1.62 (v) 387.92 208 P
1.62 (ely) 393.74 208 P
1.62 (. V) 407.63 208 P
1.62 (alues for) 422.58 208 P
3 F
1.62 (f) 470.46 208 P
2 9.6 Q
1.29 (N) 476.71 205 P
1 12 Q
1.62 ( and) 483.12 208 P
3 F
1.62 (f) 509.68 208 P
2 9.6 Q
1.29 (S) 515.93 205 P
1 12 Q
1.62 ( are) 520.73 208 P
- -0.13 (tak) 72 194 P
- -0.13 (en to be 45\373 and -41\373, respecti) 86.54 194 P
- -0.13 (v) 229.08 194 P
- -0.13 (ely) 234.9 194 P
- -0.13 (. V) 248.79 194 P
- -0.13 (alues of) 261.99 194 P
2 F
- -0.13 (C) 302.38 194 P
2 9.6 Q
- -0.1 (N) 310.38 191 P
1 12 Q
- -0.13 ( and) 316.79 194 P
2 F
- -0.13 (C) 339.85 194 P
2 9.6 Q
- -0.1 (S) 347.85 191 P
1 12 Q
- -0.13 ( are tak) 352.65 194 P
- -0.13 (en from the W) 387.59 194 P
- -0.13 (alk) 455.88 194 P
- -0.13 (er) 470.42 194 P
2 F
- -0.13 (et al.) 482.61 194 P
1 F
- -0.13 ( recon-) 506.48 194 P
- -0.27 (struction. Mid-year v) 72 180 P
- -0.27 (alues are gi) 172.81 180 P
- -0.27 (v) 226.61 180 P
- -0.27 (en for) 232.43 180 P
2 F
- -0.27 (C) 263.21 180 P
2 9.6 Q
- -0.22 (N) 271.21 177 P
1 12 Q
- -0.27 ( and) 277.61 180 P
2 F
- -0.27 (C) 300.4 180 P
2 9.6 Q
- -0.22 (S) 308.4 177 P
1 12 Q
- -0.27 ( by W) 313.2 180 P
- -0.27 (alk) 341.03 180 P
- -0.27 (er) 355.57 180 P
2 F
- -0.27 (et al.) 367.62 180 P
1 F
- -0.27 ( and these will ha) 391.35 180 P
- -0.27 (v) 474.01 180 P
- -0.27 (e to be inter-) 479.83 180 P
0.76 (polated to the model timestep. The model will be run from the middle of 1931 to the middle of) 72 166 P
(1995 with initial concentrations of zero for CFC-11 and CFC-12.) 72 152 T
0 F
(3. Air) 72 124 T
(-sea transfer) 100.88 124 T
1 F
0.43 (The air) 108 96 P
0.43 (-sea \337ux) 142.51 96 P
2 F
0.43 (F) 187.35 96 P
1 F
0.43 ( of a CFC across the air) 194.68 96 P
0.43 (-sea interf) 310.31 96 P
0.43 (ace is parameterized using a standard) 358.93 96 P
(transfer v) 72 82 T
(elocity formulation:) 117.47 82 T
220.04 234.39 388.96 269.79 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(C) 221.04 250 T
2 9 Q
(a) 229.77 246.4 T
(t) 234.8 246.4 T
(m) 237.83 246.4 T
3 12 Q
(f) 249.88 250 T
(\050) 245.04 250 T
(\051) 256.99 250 T
2 F
(C) 279.74 250 T
2 9 Q
(S) 288.47 246.4 T
2 12 Q
(C) 306.05 259.79 T
2 9 Q
(N) 314.95 256.19 T
2 12 Q
(C) 333.49 259.79 T
2 9 Q
(S) 342.21 256.19 T
1 12 Q
(\320) 324.49 259.79 T
3 F
(f) 308.06 242.24 T
2 9 Q
(N) 314.95 238.64 T
3 12 Q
(f) 333.49 242.24 T
2 9 Q
(S) 340.2 238.64 T
1 12 Q
(\320) 324.49 242.24 T
(-) 306.05 250.28 T
(-) 308.04 250.28 T
(-) 310.04 250.28 T
(-) 312.04 250.28 T
(-) 314.04 250.28 T
(-) 316.04 250.28 T
(-) 318.03 250.28 T
(-) 320.03 250.28 T
(-) 322.03 250.28 T
(-) 324.03 250.28 T
(-) 326.02 250.28 T
(-) 328.02 250.28 T
(-) 330.02 250.28 T
(-) 332.02 250.28 T
(-) 334.02 250.28 T
(-) 336.02 250.28 T
(-) 338.01 250.28 T
(-) 340.01 250.28 T
(-) 342.01 250.28 T
(-) 342.79 250.28 T
3 F
(f) 352.58 250 T
(f) 370.83 250 T
2 9 Q
(S) 377.54 246.4 T
1 12 Q
(\320) 361.83 250 T
3 F
(\050) 347.73 250 T
(\051) 382.96 250 T
1 F
(+) 296.04 250 T
(=) 266.98 250 T
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "1" 1
%%Page: "2" 2
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
 7 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(,) 359.16 698 T
(\0502\051) 526.01 698 T
0.46 (where) 72 670 P
2 F
0.46 (k) 104.78 670 P
2 9.6 Q
0.37 (w) 110.11 667 P
1 12 Q
0.46 ( is the transfer v) 116.51 670 P
0.46 (elocity for the CFC,) 195.49 670 P
2 F
0.46 (C) 296.34 670 P
2 9.6 Q
0.37 (surf) 304.34 667 P
1 12 Q
0.46 ( is the surf) 319.28 670 P
0.46 (ace ocean CFC concentration \050pre-) 370.87 670 P
0.12 (dicted by the model\051 and) 72 656 P
2 F
0.12 (C) 194.93 656 P
2 9.6 Q
0.1 (sat) 202.93 653 P
1 12 Q
0.12 ( is the CFC saturation concentration.) 214.14 656 P
2 F
0.12 (C) 393.87 656 P
2 9.6 Q
0.1 (sat) 401.87 653 P
1 12 Q
0.12 ( is computed from the for-) 413.07 656 P
1.51 (mulae of W) 72 642 P
1.51 (arner and W) 130.72 642 P
1.51 (eiss \0501985\051 with the atmospheric CFC concentration \050Equation 1\051 and) 192.09 642 P
1 (model surf) 72 628 P
1 (ace temperature and salinity and as inputs. The transfer v) 124.54 628 P
1 (elocity formulation is from) 407.33 628 P
(W) 72 614 T
(anninkhof \0501992\051:) 82.37 614 T
(,) 382.7 586 T
(\0503\051) 526.01 586 T
1.72 (where) 72 558 P
2 F
1.72 (k) 106.04 558 P
2 9.6 Q
1.38 (w) 111.36 555 P
1 12 Q
1.72 ( has units of cm hr) 117.77 558 P
1 9.6 Q
1.38 (-1) 215.16 562.8 P
1 12 Q
1.72 (,) 223.16 558 P
2 F
1.72 (f) 230.88 558 P
1 F
1.72 ( is the fraction of the sea surf) 234.21 558 P
1.72 (ace co) 385.76 558 P
1.72 (v) 417.61 558 P
1.72 (ered with ice,) 423.43 558 P
2 F
1.72 (Sc) 496.57 558 P
1 F
1.72 ( is the) 507.89 558 P
0.31 (Schmidt number for the CFC and) 72 544 P
2 F
0.31 (u) 237.21 544 P
1 F
0.31 ( is the wind speed at 10 m in m s) 243.21 544 P
1 9.6 Q
0.25 (-1) 403.67 548.8 P
1 12 Q
0.31 (. F) 411.67 544 P
0.31 (or) 424.47 544 P
2 F
0.31 (Sc) 437.78 544 P
1 F
0.31 (, we adopt the sea-) 449.11 544 P
1.02 (w) 72 530 P
1.02 (ater formulations of Zheng) 80.54 530 P
2 F
1.02 (et al.) 216.59 530 P
1 F
1.02 ( \0501998\051 using the observ) 241.61 530 P
1.02 (ed monthly mean distrib) 362.16 530 P
1.02 (ution of sea) 481.97 530 P
0.83 (surf) 72 516 P
0.83 (ace temperature from Le) 90.54 516 P
0.83 (vitus and Bo) 211.01 516 P
0.83 (yer \0501994\051. OCMIP-1 winds \050Boutin and Etcheto, per-) 273.23 516 P
- -0.28 (sonal communication\051 and sea ice concentration \050W) 72 502 P
- -0.28 (alsh, 1978; Zw) 318.64 502 P
- -0.28 (ally) 389.63 502 P
2 F
- -0.28 (et al.,) 410.35 502 P
1 F
- -0.28 ( 1983\051 will be used in) 437.07 502 P
(Equation \0503\051.) 72 488 T
0 F
(Refer) 72 460 T
(ences) 100.43 460 T
1 F
0.52 (Le) 72 432 P
0.52 (vitus, S. and T) 84.36 432 P
0.52 (. P) 154.69 432 P
0.52 (. Bo) 166.55 432 P
0.52 (yer) 186.95 432 P
0.52 (. 1994. NO) 201.62 432 P
0.52 (AA Atlas NESDIS 2, W) 255.56 432 P
0.52 (orld Ocean Atlas 1994, V) 373.65 432 P
0.52 (olume 4:) 497.15 432 P
(T) 90 418 T
(emperature. U. S. Go) 96.49 418 T
(v) 198.29 418 T
(ernment Printing Of) 204.11 418 T
(\336ce, W) 300.47 418 T
(ashington, D. C.) 334.16 418 T
- -0.22 (W) 72 404 P
- -0.22 (anninkhof, R. 1992. Relationship between wind speed and g) 82.37 404 P
- -0.22 (as e) 369.55 404 P
- -0.22 (xchange o) 387.47 404 P
- -0.22 (v) 436.06 404 P
- -0.22 (er the ocean.) 441.88 404 P
2 F
- -0.22 (J) 505.2 404 P
- -0.22 (. Geo-) 510.23 404 P
(phys. Res. 97,) 90 390 T
1 F
(7373-7382.) 159.32 390 T
- -0.26 (W) 72 376 P
- -0.26 (alsh, J. 1978. A Data Set On Northern Hemisphere Sea Ice Extent, 1953-76. Glaciological Data,) 82.37 376 P
(W) 90 362 T
(orld Data Center for Glaciology \050Sno) 100.37 362 T
(w and Ice\051, Report GD-2, 49-51.) 279.04 362 T
0.62 (W) 72 348 P
0.62 (arner) 82.37 348 P
0.62 (, M. J. and R. F) 106.54 348 P
0.62 (. W) 183 348 P
0.62 (eiss. 1985. Solubilities of chloro\337uorocarbons 11 and 12 in w) 199.98 348 P
0.62 (ater and) 501.07 348 P
(sea) 81 334 T
(w) 96.14 334 T
(ater) 104.69 334 T
(.) 122.02 334 T
2 F
(Deep-Sea Res., 32,) 128.02 334 T
1 F
(1485-497.) 221.99 334 T
0.22 (Zheng, M., W) 72 320 P
0.22 (. J. DeBruyn, and E. S. Saltzman. 1998. Measurements of the dif) 138.99 320 P
0.22 (fusion coef) 451.76 320 P
0.22 (\336cients) 505.33 320 P
(of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in pure w) 81 306 T
(ater and sea) 242.88 306 T
(w) 299.34 306 T
(ater) 307.88 306 T
(.) 325.21 306 T
2 F
(J) 331.21 306 T
(. Geophys. Res, 103,) 336.24 306 T
1 F
(1375-1379.) 437.56 306 T
0.38 (Zw) 72 292 P
0.38 (ally) 87.88 292 P
0.38 (, H. J., J. Comiso, C. P) 105.1 292 P
0.38 (arkinson, W) 216.21 292 P
0.38 (. Campbell, F) 274.14 292 P
0.38 (. Carse) 339.27 292 P
0.38 (y and P) 372.8 292 P
0.38 (. Gloerson. 1983. Antarctic) 408.22 292 P
(Sea Ice, 1973-1976: Satellite P) 90 278 T
(assi) 238.14 278 T
(v) 255.84 278 T
(e Micro) 261.66 278 T
(w) 299.02 278 T
(a) 307.56 278 T
(v) 312.65 278 T
(e Observ) 318.47 278 T
(ations, N) 361.15 278 T
(ASA, 206 pp.) 404.06 278 T
249.84 690.15 359.16 708 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(F) 250.84 698 T
(k) 277.34 698 T
2 9 Q
(w) 283.33 694.4 T
2 12 Q
(C) 294.89 698 T
2 9 Q
(s) 303.61 694.4 T
(u) 307.64 694.4 T
(r) 312.67 694.4 T
(f) 316.71 694.4 T
2 12 Q
(C) 332.52 698 T
1 9 Q
(s) 341.24 694.4 T
(a) 345.27 694.4 T
(t) 349.8 694.4 T
1 12 Q
(\320) 323.52 698 T
3 F
(\050) 290.04 698 T
(\051) 353.16 698 T
1 F
(=) 264.58 698 T
0 0 612 792 C
226.3 573.24 382.7 607.14 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(k) 229.47 586 T
2 9 Q
(w) 235.45 582.4 T
1 12 Q
(1) 265.07 586 T
2 F
(f) 284.83 586 T
1 F
(\320) 274.06 586 T
3 F
(\050) 260.22 586 T
(\051) 290.77 586 T
1 F
(0.39) 295.47 586 T
2 F
(S) 325.86 592.94 T
(c) 332.57 592.94 T
1 F
(660) 322.88 578.24 T
(-) 322.88 586.28 T
(-) 324.88 586.28 T
(-) 326.87 586.28 T
(-) 328.87 586.28 T
(-) 330.87 586.28 T
(-) 332.87 586.28 T
(-) 334.86 586.28 T
(-) 336.86 586.28 T
(-) 336.88 586.28 T
3 F
(\350) 317.18 579.96 T
(\370) 340.77 579.96 T
(\346) 317.18 590.24 T
(\366) 340.77 590.24 T
1 9 Q
(1) 351.87 597.27 T
(2) 362.37 597.27 T
3 F
(\244) 358.62 597.27 T
1 F
(\320) 347.03 597.27 T
2 12 Q
(u) 367.58 586 T
1 9 Q
(2) 374.03 592.75 T
1 12 Q
(=) 247.45 586 T
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
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