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Solubility pump protocol



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Friends of OCMIP:

I have written up a proposal for the design of the solubility pump model.
Please make comments on it in short order (~1 week) so that we can finalize
the design and get on with the simulations.

There are many OCMIP scientists I have not heard from with regard to the
nutrient and CFC model designs.  Jim and I really need to have input from you
so we arrive at the best parameterizations for our needs.  I am sure the
designs can be improved by group input so please give the protocols some
thought. Speak now or forever hold your peace!

A postscript file is attached.  As always you can acquire postscript and
Adobe PDF files by anonymous ftp to ftp.essc.psu.edu; cd to /pub/meteo/najjar

- -Ray

Raymond G. Najjar
Department of Meteorology            Phone: 814-863-1586
522 Walker Building                  Fax: 814-865-3663
The Pennsylvania State University    Email: najjar@essc.psu.edu 
University Park, PA 16802-5013       home page: http://www.essc.psu.edu/~najjar
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	FMUseHighFrequencyScreens { KHighFreqs } { KLowFreqs } ifelse
		screenIndex get 45.0 /FMSpotFunction load 
} bind def
/getSpotScreen {
	getBlackScreen
} bind def
/getCompositeScreen {
	getBlackScreen
} bind def
/FMSetScreen 
	fMLevel1 { /setscreen load 
	}{ {
		8 dict begin
		/HalftoneType 1 def
		/SpotFunction exch def
		/Angle exch def
		/Frequency exch def
		/AccurateScreens FMUseAcccurateScreens def
		currentdict end sethalftone
	} bind } ifelse
def
/setDefaultScreen {
	FMPColor {
		orgrxfer cvx orggxfer cvx orgbxfer cvx orgxfer cvx setcolortransfer
	}
	{
		orgxfer cvx settransfer
	} ifelse
	orgfreq organgle orgproc cvx setscreen
} bind def
/setCurrentScreen {
	FrameSepIs FMnone eq {
		FMUseDefaultNoSeparationScreen {
			setDefaultScreen
		} {
			getCompositeScreen FMSetScreen
		} ifelse
	} {
		FrameSepIs FMcustom eq {
			FMUseDefaultSpotSeparationScreen {
				setDefaultScreen
			} {
				getSpotScreen FMSetScreen
			} ifelse
		} {
			FMUseDefaultProcessSeparationScreen {
				setDefaultScreen
			} {
				FrameSepIs FMcyan eq {
					getCyanScreen FMSetScreen
				} {
					FrameSepIs FMmagenta eq {
						getMagentaScreen FMSetScreen
					} {
						FrameSepIs FMyellow eq {
							getYellowScreen FMSetScreen
						} {
							getBlackScreen FMSetScreen
						} ifelse
					} ifelse
				} ifelse
			} ifelse
		} ifelse
	} ifelse 
} bind def
end
	
/FMDOCUMENT { 
	array /FMfonts exch def 
	/#copies exch def
	FrameDict begin
	0 ne /manualfeed exch def
	/paperheight exch def
	/paperwidth exch def
	0 ne /fMNegative exch def 
	0 ne /edown exch def 
	/yscale exch def
	/xscale exch def
	fMLevel1 {
		manualfeed {setmanualfeed} if
		/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def 
		/FMoptop count def 
		setpapername 
		manualfeed {true} {papersize} ifelse 
		{manualpapersize} {false} ifelse 
		{desperatepapersize} {false} ifelse 
		{papersizefailure} if
		count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for
		countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for 
		}
		{2 dict
		 dup /PageSize [paperwidth paperheight] put
		 manualfeed {dup /ManualFeed manualfeed put} if
		 {setpagedevice} stopped {papersizefailure} if
		}
	ifelse 
	
	FMPColor {
		currentcolorscreen
			cvlit /orgproc exch def
				  /organgle exch def 
				  /orgfreq exch def
			cvlit /orgbproc exch def
				  /orgbangle exch def 
				  /orgbfreq exch def
			cvlit /orggproc exch def
				  /orggangle exch def 
				  /orggfreq exch def
			cvlit /orgrproc exch def
				  /orgrangle exch def 
				  /orgrfreq exch def
			currentcolortransfer 
			fMNegative {
				1 1 4 { 
					pop { 1 exch sub } fmConcatProcs 4 1 roll
				} for
				4 copy
				setcolortransfer
			} if
			cvlit /orgxfer exch def
			cvlit /orgbxfer exch def
			cvlit /orggxfer exch def
			cvlit /orgrxfer exch def
	} {
		currentscreen 
			cvlit /orgproc exch def
				  /organgle exch def 
				  /orgfreq exch def
				  
		currenttransfer 
		fMNegative {
			{ 1 exch sub } fmConcatProcs
			dup settransfer
		} if 
		cvlit /orgxfer exch def
	} ifelse
	end 
} def 
/FMBEGINPAGE { 
	FrameDict begin 
	/pagesave save def
	3.86 setmiterlimit
	/landscape exch 0 ne def
	landscape { 
		90 rotate 0 exch dup /pwid exch def neg translate pop 
	}{
		pop /pwid exch def
	} ifelse
	edown { [-1 0 0 1 pwid 0] concat } if
	0 0 moveto paperwidth 0 lineto paperwidth paperheight lineto 
	0 paperheight lineto 0 0 lineto 1 setgray fill
	xscale yscale scale
	/orgmatrix matrix def
	gsave 
} def 
/FMENDPAGE {
	grestore 
	pagesave restore
	end 
	showpage
	} def 
/FMFONTDEFINE { 
	FrameDict begin
	findfont 
	ReEncode 
	1 index exch 
	definefont 
	FMfonts 3 1 roll 
	put
	end 
	} def 
/FMFILLS {
	FrameDict begin dup
	array /fillvals exch def
	dict /patCache exch def
	end 
	} def 
/FMFILL {
	FrameDict begin
	 fillvals 3 1 roll put
	end 
	} def 
/FMNORMALIZEGRAPHICS { 
	newpath
	1 setlinewidth
	0 setlinecap
	0 0 0 sethsbcolor
	0 setgray 
	} bind def
/FMBEGINEPSF { 
	end 
	/FMEPSF save def 
	/showpage {} def 
% See Adobe's "PostScript Language Reference Manual, 2nd Edition", page 714.
% "...the following operators MUST NOT be used in an EPS file:" (emphasis ours)
	/banddevice {(banddevice) FMBADEPSF} def
	/clear {(clear) FMBADEPSF} def
	/cleardictstack {(cleardictstack) FMBADEPSF} def 
	/copypage {(copypage) FMBADEPSF} def
	/erasepage {(erasepage) FMBADEPSF} def
	/exitserver {(exitserver) FMBADEPSF} def
	/framedevice {(framedevice) FMBADEPSF} def
	/grestoreall {(grestoreall) FMBADEPSF} def
	/initclip {(initclip) FMBADEPSF} def
	/initgraphics {(initgraphics) FMBADEPSF} def
	/quit {(quit) FMBADEPSF} def
	/renderbands {(renderbands) FMBADEPSF} def
	/setglobal {(setglobal) FMBADEPSF} def
	/setpagedevice {(setpagedevice) FMBADEPSF} def
	/setshared {(setshared) FMBADEPSF} def
	/startjob {(startjob) FMBADEPSF} def
	/lettertray {(lettertray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/letter {(letter) FMBADEPSF} def
	/lettersmall {(lettersmall) FMBADEPSF} def
	/11x17tray {(11x17tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/11x17 {(11x17) FMBADEPSF} def
	/ledgertray {(ledgertray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/ledger {(ledger) FMBADEPSF} def
	/legaltray {(legaltray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/legal {(legal) FMBADEPSF} def
	/statementtray {(statementtray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/statement {(statement) FMBADEPSF} def
	/executivetray {(executivetray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/executive {(executive) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a3tray {(a3tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a3 {(a3) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a4tray {(a4tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a4 {(a4) FMBADEPSF} def
	/a4small {(a4small) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b4tray {(b4tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b4 {(b4) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b5tray {(b5tray) FMBADEPSF} def
	/b5 {(b5) FMBADEPSF} def
	FMNORMALIZEGRAPHICS 
	[/fy /fx /fh /fw /ury /urx /lly /llx] {exch def} forall 
	fx fw 2 div add fy fh 2 div add  translate
	rotate
	fw 2 div neg fh 2 div neg translate
	fw urx llx sub div fh ury lly sub div scale 
	llx neg lly neg translate 
	/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def 
	/FMoptop count def 
	} bind def
/FMENDEPSF {
	count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for 
	countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for 
	FMEPSF restore
	FrameDict begin 
	} bind def
FrameDict begin 
/setmanualfeed {
%%BeginFeature *ManualFeed True
	 statusdict /manualfeed true put
%%EndFeature
	} bind def
/max {2 copy lt {exch} if pop} bind def
/min {2 copy gt {exch} if pop} bind def
/inch {72 mul} def
/pagedimen { 
	paperheight sub abs 16 lt exch 
	paperwidth sub abs 16 lt and
	{/papername exch def} {pop} ifelse
	} bind def
/setpapername { 
	/papersizedict 14 dict def 
	papersizedict begin
	/papername /unknown def 
		/Letter 8.5 inch 11.0 inch pagedimen
		/LetterSmall 7.68 inch 10.16 inch pagedimen
		/Tabloid 11.0 inch 17.0 inch pagedimen
		/Ledger 17.0 inch 11.0 inch pagedimen
		/Legal 8.5 inch 14.0 inch pagedimen
		/Statement 5.5 inch 8.5 inch pagedimen
		/Executive 7.5 inch 10.0 inch pagedimen
		/A3 11.69 inch 16.5 inch pagedimen
		/A4 8.26 inch 11.69 inch pagedimen
		/A4Small 7.47 inch 10.85 inch pagedimen
		/B4 10.125 inch 14.33 inch pagedimen
		/B5 7.16 inch 10.125 inch pagedimen
	end
	} bind def
/papersize {
	papersizedict begin
		/Letter {lettertray letter} def
		/LetterSmall {lettertray lettersmall} def
		/Tabloid {11x17tray 11x17} def
		/Ledger {ledgertray ledger} def
		/Legal {legaltray legal} def
		/Statement {statementtray statement} def
		/Executive {executivetray executive} def
		/A3 {a3tray a3} def
		/A4 {a4tray a4} def
		/A4Small {a4tray a4small} def
		/B4 {b4tray b4} def
		/B5 {b5tray b5} def
		/unknown {unknown} def
	papersizedict dup papername known {papername} {/unknown} ifelse get
	end
	statusdict begin stopped end 
	} bind def
/manualpapersize {
	papersizedict begin
		/Letter {letter} def
		/LetterSmall {lettersmall} def
		/Tabloid {11x17} def
		/Ledger {ledger} def
		/Legal {legal} def
		/Statement {statement} def
		/Executive {executive} def
		/A3 {a3} def
		/A4 {a4} def
		/A4Small {a4small} def
		/B4 {b4} def
		/B5 {b5} def
		/unknown {unknown} def
	papersizedict dup papername known {papername} {/unknown} ifelse get
	end
	stopped 
	} bind def
/desperatepapersize {
	statusdict /setpageparams known
		{
		paperwidth paperheight 0 1 
		statusdict begin
		{setpageparams} stopped 
		end
		} {true} ifelse 
	} bind def
/papersizefailure {
	FMAllowPaperSizeMismatch not
		{
(The requested paper size is not available in any currently-installed tray)
(Edit the PS file to "FMAllowPaperSizeMismatch true" to use default tray)
		 FMFAILURE } if
	} def
/DiacriticEncoding [
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /space /exclam /quotedbl
/numbersign /dollar /percent /ampersand /quotesingle /parenleft
/parenright /asterisk /plus /comma /hyphen /period /slash /zero /one
/two /three /four /five /six /seven /eight /nine /colon /semicolon
/less /equal /greater /question /at /A /B /C /D /E /F /G /H /I /J /K
/L /M /N /O /P /Q /R /S /T /U /V /W /X /Y /Z /bracketleft /backslash
/bracketright /asciicircum /underscore /grave /a /b /c /d /e /f /g /h
/i /j /k /l /m /n /o /p /q /r /s /t /u /v /w /x /y /z /braceleft /bar
/braceright /asciitilde /.notdef /Adieresis /Aring /Ccedilla /Eacute
/Ntilde /Odieresis /Udieresis /aacute /agrave /acircumflex /adieresis
/atilde /aring /ccedilla /eacute /egrave /ecircumflex /edieresis
/iacute /igrave /icircumflex /idieresis /ntilde /oacute /ograve
/ocircumflex /odieresis /otilde /uacute /ugrave /ucircumflex
/udieresis /dagger /.notdef /cent /sterling /section /bullet
/paragraph /germandbls /registered /copyright /trademark /acute
/dieresis /.notdef /AE /Oslash /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/yen /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/ordfeminine /ordmasculine /.notdef /ae /oslash /questiondown
/exclamdown /logicalnot /.notdef /florin /.notdef /.notdef
/guillemotleft /guillemotright /ellipsis /.notdef /Agrave /Atilde
/Otilde /OE /oe /endash /emdash /quotedblleft /quotedblright
/quoteleft /quoteright /.notdef /.notdef /ydieresis /Ydieresis
/fraction /currency /guilsinglleft /guilsinglright /fi /fl /daggerdbl
/periodcentered /quotesinglbase /quotedblbase /perthousand
/Acircumflex /Ecircumflex /Aacute /Edieresis /Egrave /Iacute
/Icircumflex /Idieresis /Igrave /Oacute /Ocircumflex /.notdef /Ograve
/Uacute /Ucircumflex /Ugrave /dotlessi /circumflex /tilde /macron
/breve /dotaccent /ring /cedilla /hungarumlaut /ogonek /caron
] def
/ReEncode { 
	dup 
	length 
	dict begin 
	{
	1 index /FID ne 
		{def} 
		{pop pop} ifelse 
	} forall 
	0 eq {/Encoding DiacriticEncoding def} if 
	currentdict 
	end 
	} bind def
FMPColor 
	
	{
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLOR { 
		BITMAPCOLOR} def
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLORc { 
		BITMAPCOLORc} def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLOR { 
		BITMAPTRUECOLOR } def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLORc { 
		BITMAPTRUECOLORc } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYK { 
		BITMAPCMYK } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYKc { 
		BITMAPCMYKc } def
	}
	
	{
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLOR { 
		BITMAPGRAY} def
	/BEGINBITMAPCOLORc { 
		BITMAPGRAYc} def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLOR { 
		BITMAPTRUEGRAY } def
	/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLORc { 
		BITMAPTRUEGRAYc } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYK { 
		BITMAPCMYKGRAY } def
	/BEGINBITMAPCMYKc { 
		BITMAPCMYKGRAYc } def
	}
ifelse
/K { 
	FMPrintAllColorsAsBlack {
		dup 1 eq 2 index 1 eq and 3 index 1 eq and not
			{7 {pop} repeat 0 0 0 1 0 0 0} if
	} if 
	FrameCurColors astore 
	pop combineColor
} bind def
/graymode true def
fMLevel1 {
	/fmGetFlip {
		fMatrix2 exch get mul 0 lt { -1 } { 1 } ifelse
	} FmBD
} if
/setPatternMode {
	fMLevel1 {
		2 index patScreenDict exch known {
			pop pop
			patScreenDict exch get aload pop 
			freq 								
			mul									
			5 2 roll							
			fMatrix2 currentmatrix 1 get 0 ne {
				3 -1 roll 90 add 3 1 roll 		
				sflipx 1 fmGetFlip sflipy 2 fmGetFlip neg mul
			} {  								
				sflipx 0 fmGetFlip sflipy 3 fmGetFlip mul 
			} ifelse
			0 lt {exch pop} {pop} ifelse 		
			fMNegative { 
				{neg} fmConcatProcs 			
			} if
			bind
			
			
			
			systemdict /setscreen get exec		
			/FrameCurGray exch def
		} {
			/bwidth  exch def
			/bpside  exch def
			/bstring exch def
			/onbits 0 def  /offbits 0 def
			freq sangle landscape {90 add} if 
				{/ypoint exch def
				 /xpoint exch def
				 /xindex xpoint 1 add 2 div bpside mul cvi def
				 /yindex ypoint 1 add 2 div bpside mul cvi def
				 bstring yindex bwidth mul xindex 8 idiv add get
				 1 7 xindex 8 mod sub bitshift and 0 ne fMNegative {not} if
				 {/onbits  onbits  1 add def 1}
				 {/offbits offbits 1 add def 0}
				 ifelse
				}
				setscreen
			offbits offbits onbits add div fMNegative {1.0 exch sub} if
			/FrameCurGray exch def
		} ifelse
	} { 
		pop pop
		dup patCache exch known {
			patCache exch get
		} { 
			dup
			patDict /bstring 3 -1 roll put
			patDict 
			9 PatFreq screenIndex get div dup matrix scale
			makepattern
			dup 
			patCache 4 -1 roll 3 -1 roll put
		} ifelse
		/FrameCurGray 0 def
		/FrameCurPat exch def
	} ifelse
	/graymode false def
	combineColor
} bind def
/setGrayScaleMode {
	graymode not {
		/graymode true def
		fMLevel1 {
			setCurrentScreen
		} if
	} if
	/FrameCurGray exch def
	combineColor
} bind def
/normalize {
	transform round exch round exch itransform
	} bind def
/dnormalize {
	dtransform round exch round exch idtransform
	} bind def
/lnormalize { 
	0 dtransform exch cvi 2 idiv 2 mul 1 add exch idtransform pop
	} bind def
/H { 
	lnormalize setlinewidth
	} bind def
/Z {
	setlinecap
	} bind def
	
/PFill {
	graymode fMLevel1 or not {
		gsave 1 setgray eofill grestore
	} if
} bind def
/PStroke {
	graymode fMLevel1 or not {
		gsave 1 setgray stroke grestore
	} if
	stroke
} bind def
/X { 
	fillvals exch get
	dup type /stringtype eq
	{8 1 setPatternMode} 
	{setGrayScaleMode}
	ifelse
	} bind def
/V { 
	PFill gsave eofill grestore
	} bind def
/Vclip {
	clip
	} bind def
/Vstrk {
	currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
	} bind def
/N { 
	PStroke
	} bind def
/Nclip {
	strokepath clip newpath
	} bind def
/Nstrk {
	currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
	} bind def
/M {newpath moveto} bind def
/E {lineto} bind def
/D {curveto} bind def
/O {closepath} bind def
/L { 
 	/n exch def
	newpath
	normalize
	moveto 
	2 1 n {pop normalize lineto} for
	} bind def
/Y { 
	L 
	closepath
	} bind def
/R { 
	/y2 exch def
	/x2 exch def
	/y1 exch def
	/x1 exch def
	x1 y1
	x2 y1
	x2 y2
	x1 y2
	4 Y 
	} bind def
/rarc 
	{rad 
	 arcto
	} bind def
/RR { 
	/rad exch def
	normalize
	/y2 exch def
	/x2 exch def
	normalize
	/y1 exch def
	/x1 exch def
	mark
	newpath
	{
	x1 y1 rad add moveto
	x1 y2 x2 y2 rarc
	x2 y2 x2 y1 rarc
	x2 y1 x1 y1 rarc
	x1 y1 x1 y2 rarc
	closepath
	} stopped {x1 y1 x2 y2 R} if 
	cleartomark
	} bind def
/RRR { 
	/rad exch def
	normalize /y4 exch def /x4 exch def
	normalize /y3 exch def /x3 exch def
	normalize /y2 exch def /x2 exch def
	normalize /y1 exch def /x1 exch def
	newpath
	normalize moveto 
	mark
	{
	x2 y2 x3 y3 rarc
	x3 y3 x4 y4 rarc
	x4 y4 x1 y1 rarc
	x1 y1 x2 y2 rarc
	closepath
	} stopped
	 {x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4 newpath moveto lineto lineto lineto closepath} if
	cleartomark
	} bind def
/C { 
	grestore
	gsave
	R 
	clip
	setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/CP { 
	grestore
	gsave
	Y 
	clip
	setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/F { 
	FMfonts exch get
	FMpointsize scalefont
	setfont
	} bind def
/Q { 
	/FMpointsize exch def
	F 
	} bind def
/T { 
	moveto show
	} bind def
/RF { 
	rotate
	0 ne {-1 1 scale} if
	} bind def
/TF { 
	gsave
	moveto 
	RF
	show
	grestore
	} bind def
/P { 
	moveto
	0 32 3 2 roll widthshow
	} bind def
/PF { 
	gsave
	moveto 
	RF
	0 32 3 2 roll widthshow
	grestore
	} bind def
/S { 
	moveto
	0 exch ashow
	} bind def
/SF { 
	gsave
	moveto
	RF
	0 exch ashow
	grestore
	} bind def
/B { 
	moveto
	0 32 4 2 roll 0 exch awidthshow
	} bind def
/BF { 
	gsave
	moveto
	RF
	0 32 4 2 roll 0 exch awidthshow
	grestore
	} bind def
/G { 
	gsave
	newpath
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath 
	PFill fill
	grestore
	} bind def
/Gstrk {
	savematrix
    newpath
    2 index 2 div add exch 3 index 2 div sub exch 
    normalize 2 index 2 div sub exch 3 index 2 div add exch 
    translate
    scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    restorematrix
    currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
    } bind def
/Gclip { 
	newpath
	savematrix
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath 
	clip newpath
	restorematrix
	} bind def
/GG { 
	gsave
	newpath
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	rotate 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath
	PFill
	fill
	grestore
	} bind def
/GGclip { 
	savematrix
	newpath
    normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
    rotate 
    dnormalize scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    closepath
	clip newpath
	restorematrix
	} bind def
/GGstrk { 
	savematrix
    newpath
    normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
    rotate 
    dnormalize scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    closepath 
	restorematrix
    currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
	} bind def
/A { 
	gsave
	savematrix
	newpath
	2 index 2 div add exch 3 index 2 div sub exch 
	normalize 2 index 2 div sub exch 3 index 2 div add exch 
	translate 
	scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	restorematrix
	PStroke
	grestore
	} bind def
/Aclip {
	newpath
	savematrix
	normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
	dnormalize scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	closepath 
	strokepath clip newpath
	restorematrix
} bind def
/Astrk {
	Gstrk
} bind def
/AA { 
	gsave
	savematrix
	newpath
	
	3 index 2 div add exch 4 index 2 div sub exch 
	
	normalize 3 index 2 div sub exch 4 index 2 div add exch
	translate 
	rotate 
	scale 
	0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
	restorematrix
	PStroke
	grestore
	} bind def
/AAclip {
	savematrix
	newpath
    normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto 
    rotate 
    dnormalize scale 
    0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc 
    closepath
	strokepath clip newpath
	restorematrix
} bind def
/AAstrk {
	GGstrk
} bind def
/BEGINPRINTCODE { 
	/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def 
	/FMoptop count 7 sub def 
	/FMsaveobject save def
	userdict begin 
	/showpage {} def 
	FMNORMALIZEGRAPHICS 
	3 index neg 3 index neg translate
	} bind def
/ENDPRINTCODE {
	count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for 
	countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for 
	FMsaveobject restore 
	} bind def
/gn { 
	0 
	{	46 mul 
		cf read pop 
		32 sub 
		dup 46 lt {exit} if 
		46 sub add 
		} loop
	add 
	} bind def
/cfs { 
	/str sl string def 
	0 1 sl 1 sub {str exch val put} for 
	str def 
	} bind def
/ic [ 
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%%EndProlog
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612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
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FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
J
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(OCMIP-2 pr) 176.08 712 T
(otocol f) 242.19 712 T
(or solubility pump simulations) 279.55 712 T
(Raymond Najjar) 262.51 698 T
(May 14, 1998) 271.84 684 T
(1. Intr) 72 656 T
(oduction) 104.45 656 T
1 F
0.07 (The increase in dissolv) 108 628 P
0.07 (ed inor) 218.34 628 P
0.07 (g) 251.85 628 P
0.07 (anic carbon \050DIC\051 concentration with depth in the ocean is) 257.79 628 P
0.64 (important because it results in atmospheric CO) 72 614 P
1 9.6 Q
0.51 (2) 301.17 611 P
1 12 Q
0.64 ( le) 305.97 614 P
0.64 (v) 317.98 614 P
0.64 (els that are lo) 323.8 614 P
0.64 (wer than the) 389.75 614 P
0.64 (y w) 450.18 614 P
0.64 (ould otherwise) 468.36 614 P
0.13 (be, at least for time scales of decades to hundreds of years. Three dif) 72 600 P
0.13 (ferent processes cause v) 402.3 600 P
0.13 (aria-) 518.02 600 P
- -0.01 (tions of [DIC] in the ocean \050V) 72 586 P
- -0.01 (olk and Hof) 215.05 586 P
- -0.01 (fert, 1985\051: temperature-dependent solubility and disso-) 272.07 586 P
2.01 (ciation of CO) 72 572 P
1 9.6 Q
1.61 (2) 141.35 569 P
1 12 Q
2.01 ( in sea) 146.15 572 P
2.01 (w) 180.66 572 P
2.01 (ater \050the solubility pump\051, photosynthesis and respiration \050the or) 189.2 572 P
2.01 (g) 514.07 572 P
2.01 (anic) 520.01 572 P
0.02 (matter pump\051, and calcium carbonate precipitation and dissolution \050the carbonate pump\051. Clearly) 72 558 P
0.02 (,) 537 558 P
0.25 (it is important to isolate the dif) 72 544 P
0.25 (ferent processes if we w) 221.22 544 P
0.25 (ant to understand the marine carbon c) 338.06 544 P
0.25 (ycle) 520.01 544 P
0.42 (and its af) 72 530 P
0.42 (fect on atmospheric CO) 116.54 530 P
1 9.6 Q
0.34 (2) 232.12 527 P
1 12 Q
0.42 (. Unfortunately) 236.92 530 P
0.42 (, this is dif) 309.88 530 P
0.42 (\336cult to do using observ) 361.52 530 P
0.42 (ations alone,) 478.92 530 P
- -0.16 (lar) 72 516 P
- -0.16 (gely because of the slo) 84.44 516 P
- -0.16 (w equilibration of CO) 192.82 516 P
1 9.6 Q
- -0.12 (2) 298.01 513 P
1 12 Q
- -0.16 ( at the air) 302.81 516 P
- -0.16 (-sea interf) 347.09 516 P
- -0.16 (ace. Models of) 395.13 516 P
- -0.16 (fer an attracti) 465.49 516 P
- -0.16 (v) 528.85 516 P
- -0.16 (e) 534.67 516 P
0.74 (means for estimating the impact of the solubility pump on the marine DIC distrib) 72 502 P
0.74 (ution. F) 471.02 502 P
0.74 (or this) 508.92 502 P
(reason, and others, simulations of the solubility pump will be performed as part of OCMIP-2.) 72 488 T
0 F
(2. Design of simulation) 72 460 T
1 F
0.36 (The basic design of the solubility pump model is similar to that used in OCMIP-1. [DIC]) 108 432 P
2.72 (is the only prognostic v) 72 418 P
2.72 (ariable in the model, being solely determined by ocean circulation,) 195.25 418 P
0.18 (e) 72 404 P
0.18 (xchange with an atmosphere of \336x) 77.15 404 P
0.18 (ed) 243.49 404 P
2 F
0.18 (p) 257.99 404 P
1 F
0.18 (CO) 263.99 404 P
1 9.6 Q
0.14 (2) 280.66 401 P
1 12 Q
0.18 (, and the fresh w) 285.46 404 P
0.18 (ater \337ux at the air) 365.69 404 P
0.18 (-sea interf) 450.81 404 P
0.18 (ace. The) 499.18 404 P
(air) 72 390 T
(-sea CO) 84.42 390 T
1 9.6 Q
(2) 123.41 387 T
1 12 Q
( \337ux is parameterized using) 128.21 390 T
(,) 370.66 362 T
(\0501\051) 526.01 362 T
0.66 (where) 72 334 P
2 F
0.66 (F) 104.98 334 P
1 F
0.66 ( is the upw) 112.31 334 P
0.66 (ard CO) 166.5 334 P
1 9.6 Q
0.53 (2) 202.15 331 P
1 12 Q
0.66 ( \337ux,) 206.95 334 P
2 F
0.66 (k) 235.95 334 P
2 9.6 Q
0.53 (w) 241.27 331 P
1 12 Q
0.66 ( is the CO) 247.68 334 P
1 9.6 Q
0.53 (2) 297.99 331 P
1 12 Q
0.66 ( g) 302.79 334 P
0.66 (as transfer v) 312.39 334 P
0.66 (elocity) 372.18 334 P
0.66 (, [CO) 404.06 334 P
1 9.6 Q
0.53 (2) 431.39 331 P
1 12 Q
0.66 (] is the surf) 436.19 334 P
0.66 (ace ocean) 492.37 334 P
0.73 (concentration of CO) 72 320 P
1 9.6 Q
0.58 (2) 171.44 317 P
1 12 Q
0.73 (,) 176.24 320 P
3 F
0.73 (a) 182.97 320 P
1 F
0.73 ( is the solubility of CO) 190.54 320 P
1 9.6 Q
0.58 (2) 303.86 317 P
1 12 Q
0.73 ( and) 308.66 320 P
2 F
0.73 (f) 333.45 320 P
1 F
0.73 (CO) 336.78 320 P
1 9.6 Q
0.58 (2) 353.45 317 P
1 12 Q
0.73 ( is the fug) 358.25 320 P
0.73 (acity of CO) 408.04 320 P
1 9.6 Q
0.58 (2) 465.49 317 P
1 12 Q
0.73 ( in the surf) 470.29 320 P
0.73 (ace) 524.02 320 P
0.07 (atmosphere. [CO) 72 306 P
1 9.6 Q
0.05 (2) 154.05 303 P
1 12 Q
0.07 (] is computed from [DIC] in addition to other \336elds that are speci\336ed: tempera-) 158.85 306 P
1.73 (ture, salinity) 72 292 P
1.73 (, alkalinity) 132.95 292 P
1.73 (, phosphate and silicate. The set of equations used for computing CO) 185.23 292 P
1 9.6 Q
1.38 (2) 535.2 289 P
1 12 Q
0.22 (tak) 72 278 P
0.22 (es into account speciation of inor) 86.54 278 P
0.22 (g) 246.39 278 P
0.22 (anic carbon, boron, phosphorus, silicon, \337uorine and sulfur) 252.33 278 P
0.22 (,) 537 278 P
- -0.14 (and is described in a separate document, as is the formulation of the transfer v) 72 264 P
- -0.14 (elocity) 444.07 264 P
- -0.14 (. The solubil-) 475.95 264 P
(ity used is that of W) 72 250 T
(eiss \0501974\051.) 168.04 250 T
- -0.12 (Model-predicted temperature and salinity will be used in the CO) 108 236 P
1 9.6 Q
- -0.09 (2) 416.55 233 P
1 12 Q
- -0.12 ( equilibrium and solubil-) 421.35 236 P
2.86 (ity calculations. Distrib) 72 222 P
2.86 (utions of alkalinity) 189.82 222 P
2.86 (, phosphate and silicate need to be speci\336ed. W) 285.44 222 P
2.86 (e) 534.67 222 P
0.58 (assume that the ef) 72 208 P
0.58 (fects of biological processes on these chemical species are absent, b) 159.74 208 P
0.58 (ut that the) 490.85 208 P
1.1 (global in) 72 194 P
1.1 (v) 114.96 194 P
1.1 (entories are the same. Thus, only e) 120.78 194 P
1.1 (v) 293.71 194 P
1.1 (aporation and precipitation af) 299.41 194 P
1.1 (fect the distrib) 444.04 194 P
1.1 (ution) 515.33 194 P
(alkalinity) 72 180 T
(, phosphate and silicate. Their concentrations are therefore proportional to the salinity:) 116.56 180 T
(\0502\051) 526.01 152 T
0.58 (where X is the chemical species,) 72 124 P
2 F
0.58 (S) 235.11 124 P
1 F
0.58 ( is the salinity and the o) 241.11 124 P
0.58 (v) 358.42 124 P
0.58 (erbar indicates the global a) 364.23 124 P
0.58 (v) 495.62 124 P
0.58 (erage.) 501.44 124 P
2 F
0.58 (S) 534 124 P
1 F
0.08 (and its global a) 72 110 P
0.08 (v) 144.99 110 P
0.08 (erage are tak) 150.82 110 P
0.08 (en from the ocean model. Global mean v) 212.15 110 P
0.08 (alues of phosphate and sili-) 408.37 110 P
0.24 (cate are tak) 72 96 P
0.24 (en to be 2.17 and 89.8) 127 96 P
3 F
0.24 (m) 237.78 96 P
1 F
0.24 (mol kg) 244.7 96 P
1 9.6 Q
0.19 (-1) 278.61 100.8 P
1 12 Q
0.24 (, respecti) 286.61 96 P
0.24 (v) 329.87 96 P
0.24 (ely) 335.69 96 P
0.24 (, which were computed from the global) 349.58 96 P
0.4 (analyses of Le) 72 82 P
0.4 (vitus) 141.82 82 P
2 F
0.4 (et al.) 168.57 82 P
1 F
0.4 ( \0501993\051. The global mean alkalinity is tak) 192.97 82 P
0.4 (en to be 2370) 394.33 82 P
3 F
0.4 (m) 463.93 82 P
1 F
0.4 (eq kg) 470.85 82 P
1 9.6 Q
0.32 (-1) 497.58 86.8 P
1 12 Q
0.4 ( \050T) 505.58 82 P
0.4 (aka-) 519.35 82 P
238.34 354.15 370.66 372 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(F) 239.34 362 T
(k) 265.84 362 T
2 9 Q
(w) 271.83 358.4 T
1 12 Q
(C) 288.23 362 T
(O) 296.94 362 T
1 9 Q
(2) 306.06 358.4 T
3 12 Q
([) 283.39 362 T
(]) 311.42 362 T
(a) 327.41 362 T
2 F
(f) 335.69 362 T
1 F
(C) 341.48 362 T
(O) 350.2 362 T
1 9 Q
(2) 359.32 358.4 T
1 12 Q
(\320) 318.41 362 T
3 F
(\050) 278.54 362 T
(\051) 364.67 362 T
1 F
(=) 253.07 362 T
0 0 612 792 C
273.12 137.3 338.88 168.94 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(X) 278.97 152 T
3 F
([) 274.12 152 T
(]) 288.48 152 T
2 F
(S) 311.48 158.94 T
(S) 311.48 142.3 T
1 F
(-) 311.48 152.28 T
(-) 313.48 152.28 T
(-) 313.58 152.28 T
(X) 323.37 152 T
3 F
([) 318.52 152 T
(]) 332.89 152 T
1 F
(=) 298.47 152 T
312.68 152.04 316.38 152.04 2 L
0.54 H
2 Z
N
319.72 162.74 335.68 162.74 2 L
N
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "1" 1
%%Page: "2" 2
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
 7 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(hashi) 72 712 T
2 F
(et al.,) 100.33 712 T
1 F
( 1981\051.) 127.33 712 T
0.07 (The ef) 108 698 P
0.07 (fect of e) 138.75 698 P
0.07 (v) 177.9 698 P
0.07 (aporation and precipitation on the DIC distrib) 183.6 698 P
0.07 (ution is parameterized in the) 403.08 698 P
(same w) 72 684 T
(ay as in the standard biological model. The \322virtual\323 DIC \337ux is) 108.2 684 T
(\0503\051) 526.01 656 T
- -0.04 (where the con) 72 628 P
- -0.04 (v) 138.76 628 P
- -0.04 (ention is positi) 144.58 628 P
- -0.04 (v) 214.89 628 P
- -0.04 (e upw) 220.71 628 P
- -0.04 (ard. [DIC]\373 is the globally-a) 249.54 628 P
- -0.04 (v) 383.47 628 P
- -0.04 (eraged surf) 389.29 628 P
- -0.04 (ace concentration of) 442.77 628 P
0.57 (DIC and) 72 614 P
0.57 ( is the model predicted \050or diagnosed\051 precipitation minus e) 147.08 614 P
0.57 (v) 438.18 614 P
0.57 (aporation. [DIC]\373 is) 443.88 614 P
(tak) 72 600 T
(en to be 1980) 86.54 600 T
3 F
(m) 154.54 600 T
1 F
(mol kg) 161.45 600 T
1 9.6 Q
(-1) 195.12 604.8 T
1 12 Q
( \050Najjar) 203.12 600 T
(, 1992\051.) 239.62 600 T
0.1 (The model will be run to equilibrium from an arbitrary DIC distrib) 108 586 P
0.1 (ution with atmospheric) 429.14 586 P
2 F
(p) 72 572 T
1 F
(CO) 78 572 T
1 9.6 Q
(2) 94.67 569 T
1 12 Q
( \336x) 99.47 572 T
(ed at 278) 114.96 572 T
3 F
(m) 161.95 572 T
1 F
(atm.) 168.86 572 T
0 F
(Refer) 72 544 T
(ences) 100.43 544 T
1 F
- -0.14 (Le) 72 516 P
- -0.14 (vitus, S., J. L. Reid, M. E. Conkright, R. G. Najjar) 84.36 516 P
- -0.14 (, and A. Mantyla. 1993. Distrib) 323.53 516 P
- -0.14 (ution of phos-) 472.94 516 P
(phate, nitrate and silicate in the w) 90 502 T
(orld oceans.) 251.52 502 T
2 F
(Pr) 312.5 502 T
(o) 323.96 502 T
(g) 329.84 502 T
(. Oceano) 335.66 502 T
(gr) 378.86 502 T
(. 31,) 388.2 502 T
1 F
(245-273.) 412.2 502 T
0.87 (Najjar) 72 488 P
0.87 (, R. G. 1992. Marine Biogeochemistry) 101.51 488 P
0.87 (. In:) 289.39 488 P
2 F
0.87 (Climate System Modeling) 313.46 488 P
1 F
0.87 (, T) 438.52 488 P
0.87 (renberth, K. \050ed.\051,) 452.3 488 P
(Cambridge Uni) 90 474 T
(v) 164.03 474 T
(ersity Press, Cambridge, England, 241-280.) 169.85 474 T
0.13 (T) 72 460 P
0.13 (akahashi, T) 78.37 460 P
0.13 (., W) 132.93 460 P
0.13 (. S. Broeck) 152.29 460 P
0.13 (er) 205.75 460 P
0.13 (, and A. E. Bainbridge. 1981. Supplement to the alkalinity and total) 214.6 460 P
0.34 (carbon dioxide in the w) 90 446 P
0.34 (orld oceans. In: Bolin, B \050Ed.\051, Carbon Cycle Modelling, SCOPE 16,) 204.57 446 P
(159-200, John W) 90 432 T
(ile) 172.51 432 T
(y & Sons, Chichester) 184.33 432 T
(.) 285.67 432 T
0.13 (V) 72 418 P
0.13 (olk, T) 79.12 418 P
0.13 (. and M. I. Hof) 107.03 418 P
0.13 (fert. 1985. Ocean carbon pumps: analysis of relati) 178.9 418 P
0.13 (v) 419.12 418 P
0.13 (e strengths and ef) 424.94 418 P
0.13 (\336cien-) 509.34 418 P
1.38 (cies in ocean-dri) 90 404 P
1.38 (v) 171.77 404 P
1.38 (en atmospheric) 177.59 404 P
2 F
1.38 (p) 256.34 404 P
1 F
1.38 (CO) 262.34 404 P
1 9.6 Q
1.11 (2) 279.01 401 P
1 12 Q
1.38 ( changes. E.T) 283.81 404 P
1.38 (. Sundquist and W) 351 404 P
1.38 (.S. Broeck) 442.71 404 P
1.38 (er \050Eds.\051,) 494.3 404 P
0.72 (Carbon Dioxide and the Carbon Cycle, Archean to Present, Geoph) 90 390 P
0.72 (ys. Monogr) 416.02 390 P
0.72 (. Ser) 471.41 390 P
0.72 (., v) 493.46 390 P
0.72 (ol. 32,) 508.94 390 P
(99- 110, A) 90 376 T
(GU, W) 141.18 376 T
(ashington, D.C.) 174.88 376 T
0.4 (W) 72 362 P
0.4 (eiss, R. F) 82.37 362 P
0.4 (. 1974. Carbon dioxide in w) 126.89 362 P
0.4 (ater and sea) 263.12 362 P
0.4 (w) 320.38 362 P
0.4 (ater: The solubility of a non-ideal g) 328.93 362 P
0.4 (as.) 501.27 362 P
2 F
0.4 (Mar) 517.67 362 P
0.4 (.) 537 362 P
(Chem., 2,) 90 348 T
1 F
( 203-215.) 136 348 T
245.43 648.15 366.58 666 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(F) 246.43 656 T
1 9 Q
(D) 254.62 652.4 T
(I) 261.65 652.4 T
(C) 265.18 652.4 T
1 12 Q
(D) 294.79 656 T
(I) 304.16 656 T
(C) 308.86 656 T
3 F
([) 289.94 656 T
(]) 317.72 656 T
(\260) 322.42 656 T
2 F
(P) 332.78 656 T
(E) 352.12 656 T
1 F
(\320) 343.11 656 T
3 F
(\050) 327.93 656 T
(\051) 360.58 656 T
1 F
(=) 277.18 656 T
0 0 612 792 C
117.13 609 147.08 624 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(P) 118.13 614 T
(E) 137.47 614 T
1 F
(\320) 128.46 614 T
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
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